902.7 Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons (MUTCD Chapter 4F)

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902.7.1 Application of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons (MUTCD Section 4F.01)

Support. A pedestrian hybrid beacon is a special type of hybrid beacon used to warn and control traffic at an unsignalized location to assist pedestrians in crossing a street or highway at a marked crosswalk.

Option. A pedestrian hybrid beacon may be considered for installation to facilitate pedestrian crossings at a location that does not meet traffic signal warrants (see EPG 902.3 Traffic Control Signal Needs Studies), or at a location that meets traffic signal warrants under EPG 902.3.6 and/or EPG 902.3.7 but a decision is made to not install a traffic control signal.

Standard. If used, pedestrian hybrid beacons shall be used in conjunction with signs and pavement markings to warn and control traffic at locations where pedestrians enter or cross a street or highway. A pedestrian hybrid beacon shall only be installed at a marked crosswalk. A pedestrian hybrid beacon shall meet one of the subsequently defined guidance in order to be installed, unless an engineering study justifying installation is submitted and approved by the State Traffic Engineer.

Guidance. If one of the signal warrants of EPG 902.3 is met and a traffic control signal is justified by an engineering study, and if a decision is made to install a traffic control signal, it should be installed based upon the provisions of EPG 902.5 and EPG 902.6.

If a traffic control signal is not justified under the signal warrants of EPG 902.3 and if gaps in traffic are not adequate to permit pedestrians to cross, or if the speed for vehicles approaching on the major street is too high to permit pedestrians to cross, or if pedestrian delay is excessive, the need for a pedestrian hybrid beacon should be considered on the basis of an engineering study that considers major-street volumes, speeds, widths and gaps in conjunction with pedestrian volumes, walking speeds, and delay.

For a major street where the posted or statutory speed limit or the 85th-percentile speed is 35 mph or less, the need for a pedestrian hybrid beacon should be considered if the engineering study finds that the plotted point representing the vehicles per hour on the major street (total of both approaches) and the corresponding total of all pedestrians crossing the major street for 1 hour (any four consecutive 15-minute periods) of an average day falls above the applicable curve in Fig. 902.7.1.1 for the length of the crosswalk.

Fig. 902.7.1.1 Guidelines for the Installation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on Low-Speed Roadways  * Note: 20 pph applies as the lower threshold volume
Fig. 902.7.1.1 Guidelines for the Installation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on Low-Speed Roadways
* Note: 20 pph applies as the lower threshold volume

For a major street where the posted or statutory speed limit or the 85th-percentile speed exceeds 35 mph, the need for a pedestrian hybrid beacon should be considered if the engineering study finds that the plotted point representing the vehicles per hour on the major street (total of both approaches) and the corresponding total of all pedestrians crossing the major street for 1 hour (any four consecutive 15-minute periods) of an average day falls above the applicable curve in Fig. 902.7.1.2 for the length of the crosswalk.

Fig. 902.7.1.2 Guidelines for the Installation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on High-Speed Roadways  * Note: 20 pph applies as the lower threshold volume
Fig. 902.7.1.2 Guidelines for the Installation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on High-Speed Roadways
* Note: 20 pph applies as the lower threshold volume

For crosswalks that have lengths other than the four that are specifically shown in Figs. 902.7.1.1 and 902.7.1.2, the values should be interpolated between the curves.

902.7.2 Design of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons (MUTCD Section 4F.02)

Standard. Except as otherwise provided in this Section, a pedestrian hybrid beacon shall meet the provisions of EPG 902.5 and EPG 902.6.

A pedestrian hybrid beacon face shall consist of three signal sections, with a CIRCULAR YELLOW signal indication centered below two horizontally aligned CIRCULAR RED signal indications (see Fig. 902.7.2).

Fig. 902.7.2 Sequence for a Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon
Fig. 902.7.2 Sequence for a Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon

When an engineering study finds that installation of a pedestrian hybrid beacon is justified, then:

A. At least two pedestrian hybrid beacon faces shall be installed for each approach of the major street,
B. A stop line shall be installed for each approach to the crosswalk,
C. A pedestrian signal head conforming to the provisions set forth in EPG 902.6 shall be installed at each end of the marked crosswalk, and
D. The pedestrian hybrid beacon shall be pedestrian actuated.

Guidance. When an engineering study finds that installation of a pedestrian hybrid beacon is justified, then:

A. The pedestrian hybrid beacon should be installed at least 100 ft. from side streets or driveways that are controlled by STOP or YIELD signs,
B. Parking and other sight obstructions should be prohibited for at least 100 ft. in advance of and at least 20 ft. beyond the marked crosswalk, or site accommodations should be made through curb extensions or other techniques to provide adequate sight distance,
C. The installation should include suitable standard signs and pavement markings, and
D. If installed within a signal system, the pedestrian hybrid beacon should be coordinated.

On approaches having posted or statutory speed limits or 85th-percentile speeds in excess of 35 mph and on approaches having traffic or operating conditions that would tend to obscure visibility of roadside hybrid beacon face locations, both of the minimum of two pedestrian hybrid beacon faces should be installed over the roadway.

On multi-lane approaches having a posted or statutory speed limits or 85th-percentile speeds of 35 mph or less, either a pedestrian hybrid beacon face should be installed on each side of the approach (if a median of sufficient width exists) or at least one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon faces should be installed over the roadway.

A pedestrian hybrid beacon should comply with the signal face location provisions described in EPG 902.5.20 through EPG 902.5.25.

Standard. A CROSSWALK STOP ON RED (symbolic circular red) (R10-23) sign (see MUTCD Section 2B.53) shall be mounted adjacent to a pedestrian hybrid beacon face on each major street approach. If an overhead pedestrian hybrid beacon face is provided, the sign shall be mounted adjacent to the overhead signal face.

Option. A Pedestrian (W11-2) warning sign (see MUTCD Section 2C.50) with an AHEAD (W16-9P) supplemental plaque may be placed in advance of a pedestrian hybrid beacon. A warning beacon may be installed to supplement the W11-2 sign.

Guidance. If a warning beacon supplements a W11-2 sign in advance of a pedestrian hybrid beacon, it should be programmed to flash only when the pedestrian hybrid beacon is not in the dark mode.

Standard. If a warning beacon is installed to supplement the W11-2 sign, the design and location of the warning beacon shall comply with the provisions of EPG 902.12.1 and EPG 902.12.3.

902.7.3 Operation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons (MUTCD Section 4F.03)

Standard. Pedestrian hybrid beacon indications shall be dark (not illuminated) during periods between actuations.

Upon actuation by a pedestrian, a pedestrian hybrid beacon face shall display a flashing CIRCULAR YELLOW signal indication, followed by a steady CIRCULAR YELLOW signal indication, followed by both steady CIRCULAR RED signal indications during the pedestrian walk interval, followed by alternating flashing CIRCULAR RED signal indications during the pedestrian clearance interval (see Fig. 902.7.2). Upon termination of the pedestrian clearance interval, the pedestrian hybrid beacon faces shall revert to a dark (not illuminated) condition.

Except as provided in the Option below, the pedestrian signal heads shall continue to display a steady UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK) signal indication when the pedestrian hybrid beacon faces are either dark or displaying flashing or steady CIRCULAR YELLOW signal indications. The pedestrian signal heads shall display a WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) signal indication when the pedestrian hybrid beacon faces are displaying steady CIRCULAR RED signal indications. The pedestrian signal heads shall display a flashing UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK) signal indication when the pedestrian hybrid beacon faces are displaying alternating flashing CIRCULAR RED signal indications. Upon termination of the pedestrian clearance interval, the pedestrian signal heads shall revert to a steady UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK) signal indication.

Option. Where the pedestrian hybrid beacon is installed adjacent to a roundabout to facilitate crossings by pedestrians with visual disabilities and an engineering study determines that pedestrians without visual disabilities can be allowed to cross the roadway without actuating the pedestrian hybrid beacon, the pedestrian signal heads may be dark (not illuminated) when the pedestrian hybrid beacon faces are dark.

Guidance. The duration of the flashing yellow interval should be determined by engineering judgment.

Standard. The duration of the steady yellow change interval shall be determined using engineering practices.

Guidance. The steady yellow interval should have a minimum duration of 3 seconds and a maximum duration of 6 seconds (see EPG 902.5.36.2 Yellow Change and Red Clearance Intervals). The longer intervals should be reserved for use on approaches with higher speeds.

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