Difference between revisions of "Category:1005 Aggregate for Concrete"

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(1005.3 Records and Reports)
(1005.4.2.7 Deleterious Content)
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====1005.4.2.7 Deleterious Content====
 
====1005.4.2.7 Deleterious Content====
The percentage of deleterious substances for coarse aggregate is to be determined according to [[:Category:1001 General Requirements for Material#1001.2.4.5 Percent Other Deleterious Substances, Clay Lumps and Shale in Fine Aggregate|General Requirements for Material-Percent Other Deleterious Substances, Clay Lumps and Shale in Fine Aggregate]]. Where field determinations show a total deleterious content of 2.0 percent or less, including not more than 0.5 percent shale, the deleterious content shall be inspected visually. The sample is to be tested if visual inspection indicates more than 2.0 percent total deleterious material present in the sample. Source approval samples shall always be tested regardless of the content of deleterious material.
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The percentage of deleterious substances for coarse aggregate is to be determined according to [[:Category:1001 General Requirements for Material#1001.4.5 Percent Other Deleterious Substances, Clay Lumps and Shale in Fine Aggregate|General Requirements for Material-Percent Other Deleterious Substances, Clay Lumps and Shale in Fine Aggregate]]. Where field determinations show a total deleterious content of 2.0 percent or less, including not more than 0.5 percent shale, the deleterious content shall be inspected visually. The sample is to be tested if visual inspection indicates more than 2.0 percent total deleterious material present in the sample. Source approval samples shall always be tested regardless of the content of deleterious material.
  
 
The percentage of lightweight particles in fine aggregate shall be determined according to AASHTO T 113, except the heavy liquid shall be a solution of zinc chloride and water of having a specific gravity of 2.00 ± 0.01.
 
The percentage of lightweight particles in fine aggregate shall be determined according to AASHTO T 113, except the heavy liquid shall be a solution of zinc chloride and water of having a specific gravity of 2.00 ± 0.01.

Revision as of 05:59, 8 August 2007

This guidance establishes procedures for the inspection, testing and acceptance of coarse and fine aggregate for use in concrete.

1005.1 Procedure

Inspection, testing, and sampling will be governed by the instructions contained in General Requirements for Material.

Field tests required are as follows:

Required Field Tests
TEST Template Template Description
Sieve Analysis T27 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate
Percent Deleterious SAA001Dx* NEWEST Deleterious 1005 C Aggregate
Lightweight particle content, including coal and lignite, in fine aggregate SAA001Kx* NEWEST Deleterious 1005 F Aggregate
Absorption SAA005Ax* NEWEST Retained AASHTO T85 Absorption for Concrete Aggregate**
SAA005Bx* NEWEST Independent AASHTO T85 Absorption for Concrete Aggregate
Thin or Elongated Particles SAA001Dx* NEWEST Deleterious 1005 C Aggregate
*Test Template numbers have been depicted with a generic ‘x’ as some templates are updated and the last letter in the template name may change. The most current template for a template sequence should contain ‘NEWEST’ at the beginning of the template name.
**Test For Concrete Masonry accepted by the engineer, approximately 20% of retained samples will be sent to

the Central Lab for comparison purposes.

Samples required for Laboratory tests are as follows:

(a) Initial Evaluation for coarse aggregate.
(b) Source Approval.
(c) Absorption as received and rodded unit weight (mass).
(d) Source Approval for lightweight aggregate.

1005.2 Acceptance

Source Approval is based on the results of Laboratory tests. Acceptance is based on routine tests in the field to ensure compliance with Sec 1005.

1005.3 Records and Reports

All plant records shown in General Requirements for Material - Records and Reports shall be maintained. The aggregates shall be reported through SiteManager in accordance with Automation Section AS-3510.

1005.4 Laboratory Procedures for Sec 1005

1005.4.1 Types of Samples Tested

1005.4.1.1 Initial Approval Sample

Tests consist of specific gravity, absorption, Los Angeles abrasion, and soundness (water-alcohol and sodium sulfate).

When deemed necessary coarse aggregate intended for use in portland cement concrete may also be subjected to additional tests including: magnesium sulfate soundness, potential alkali reactivity of carbonate rocks, rapid freeze-thaw, mortar bar expansion and alkali-silica reaction in concrete.

The minimum time required for completion of all initial approval sample tests is 150 working days from the date received.

The minimum time required for completion of initial approval sample tests is 24 working days from the date received.

Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

1005.4.1.2 Source Approval Sample

Coarse aggregate tests consist of sieve analysis, specific gravity, absorption, rodded unit weight, Los Angeles abrasion, deleterious content, and soundness (water-alcohol and sodium sulfate). The minimum time required for completion of tests is 24 working days from the date received. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

Fine aggregate tests consist of sieve analysis; specific gravity; absorption, rodded unit weight; other deleterious substances, clay lumps and shale, and lightweight particle content when specified; and mortar strength test. The minimum time required for completion of tests is 10 working days from the date received. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

1005.4.1.3 Source Approval Sample for Lightweight Aggregate

Source approval samples are obtained for lightweight aggregate. Tests consist of sieve analysis, specific gravity, absorption, loose unit weight, soundness by sodium or magnesium sulfate, and drying shrinkage. Tests for soundness and drying shrinkage need not be run providing recent satisfactory results were obtained on a previous sample of similar characteristics and from the same source. The minimum time required for complete tests is 40 days from the date received. Samples, which do not require tests for soundness and drying shrinkage, require a minimum time of six working days for completion. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

1005.4.1.4 Production Sample

Coarse aggregate tests consist of sieve analysis, specific gravity, absorption, and deleterious content. The minimum time required for completion of tests is four working days from the date received. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

Fine aggregate tests consist of sieve analysis; specific gravity; absorption; rodded unit weight; other deleterious substances, clay lumps and shale; lightweight particle content when specified; colormetric test; and mortar strength (if colormetric test fails). Complete tests require a minimum time of 10 working days from the date received. Samples, which do not require a mortar strength test, can be completed in 4 working days. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

Lightweight aggregate tests consist of sieve analysis and loose unit weight. The minimum time required for completion of tests is three working days from the date received. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

1005.4.1.5 Absorption as Received Sample

Tests consist of specific gravity and absorption and shall be performed on the sample in the "as received condition". The minimum time required for completion of tests is three working days from the date received. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

1005.4.1.6 Rodded Unit Weight Sample

The minimum time required for a unit weight test is two working days from the date received. Test results and calculations shall be recorded through SiteManager.

1005.4.2 Procedure

1005.4.2.1 Sieve Analysis

Fine and coarse aggregates shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 27.

Lightweight aggregate shall be tested according to AASHTO T 27 except the minimum weight (mass) of the test sample should be approximately one-half the amount shown.

1005.4.2.2 Specific Gravity and Absorption

Coarse aggregate shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 85 for Bulk Specific Gravity. When coarse aggregate is furnished in two fractions, the fractions shall be combined in the designated proportion, prior to testing.

Fine aggregate shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 84.

1005.4.2.3 Specific Gravity of Lightweight Aggregate

Apparatus

(a) Vacuum System. A system capable of maintaining a vacuum of 16 mm or more of mercury in a chamber of sufficient size to accommodate the aggregate sample. The system must have airtight valves so there is no loss of vacuum when the system is closed and to allow inundation of the aggregate with water.
(b) Balance. A balance or scale having a capacity of 1 kg or more and sensitive to 0.1 g or less.
(c) Oven. The oven shall be capable of maintaining a uniform temperature of 110 ± 5 °C (230 ± 9 °F).
(d) Heater. An electric heater equipped with fan for drying aggregate to surface dry condition.
(e) Pycnometer. A calibrated 500 ml volumetric flask.
(f) Water Bath. A water tank capable of maintaining a temperature of 23 ± 1.7 °C [73.4 ± 3 °F].
(g) Trowel. A small masonry trowel for stirring aggregate.
(h) Containers. A metal pail approximately 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter and 200 mm (8 in.) high and pans of suitable size to allow uniform drying of aggregate.

Sample Preparation

(a) Obtain approximately 2200 g of aggregate from the sample by use of a sample splitter.
(b) Dry the sample to constant weight in an oven at a temperature of 110 ± 5 °C [230 ± 9 °F].
(c) Remove the sample from the oven and allow to cool in air at room temperature.

Test Method

(a) Introduce the sample in the pail and place in the vacuum chamber. A piece of fine wire mesh fitted inside the pail will prevent particles from floating. Evacuate at 16 mm of mercury or more for 20 minutes.
(b) Inundate the aggregate with water.
(c) Remove the pail containing aggregate and water from the vacuum chamber and let soak for four hours.
(d) Drain the water from the sample and place in a pan of sufficient size to permit the sample to be spread in a thin layer. Expose the sample to a gentle moving current of warm air, with the use of an electric heater, and stir frequently with a trowel to insure uniform drying.
When the sample approaches the surface dry condition, transfer the sample to a smaller pan to slow down the drying process. This aids in the detection of the surface dry condition. At this point, it is necessary to stir continuously to insure uniform drying of the sample. The trowel is used to check the surface dry condition of the aggregate by running it horizontally through the aggregate several times and checking immediately for moisture. The surface dry condition is reached when moisture is visible on the tip of the trowel covering approximately 40 mm (1 1/2 in.) from the tip end.
(e) Immediately introduce approximately 300 g of the saturated surface-dry material into a pycnometer of known weight (mass) and record the weight of the pycnometer and sample. Record this and all other weights (masses) to the nearest 0.1 g.
(f) Fill the pycnometer with water to approximately 90 percent of its calibrated capacity. Roll and agitate the pycnometer eliminate all air bubbles.
(g) Immerse the pycnometer in a water bath. Adjust the water level in the pycnometer to the calibrated line with water at the same temperature as the bath. Record the total weight of pycnometer, sample and water.
(h) Remove the aggregate from the pycnometer, dry to constant weight at a temperature of 110 ± 5 °C [230 ± 9 °F]. Cool in air at room temperature and weigh.
(i) Determine the weight of the water required to fill the pycnometer of its calibration capacity at 23 ± 1.7 °C [73.4 ± 3 °F].

Calculate the bulk specific gravity as follows:

Bulk\,Specific\, Gravity=\frac{A}{B-W-C}
Where:
A = weight of oven-dry sample in air, g
B = weight of pycnometer and saturated surface dry material, g
W = weight of water required to fill pycnometer to calibration mark at 23 ± 1.7 °C (73.4 ± °3 F)
C = weight of pycnometer with sample and water to calibration mark, g.

1005.4.2.4 Absorption of Lightweight Aggregate

Apparatus

(a) Balance. A balance or scale having a capacity of 5 kg or more and sensitive to 0.5 g or less.
(b) Oven. The oven shall be capable of maintaining a uniform temperature of 110 ± 5 °C (230 ± 9 °F).
(c) Heater. An electric heater equipped with fan for drying aggregate to surface dry condition.
(d) Trowel. A small masonry trowel for stirring aggregate.
(e) Containers. Pans of suitable size to allow uniform drying of aggregate.

Sample Preparation

(a) Obtain approximately 2200 g of aggregate from the sample by use of a sample splitter.
(b) Dry the sample to constant weight (mass) in an oven at a temperature of 110 ± 5 °C (230 ± 9 °F).
(c) Remove the sample from the oven and allow to cool in air at room temperature.

Test Method

(a) Immerse the sample in water at room temperature for approximately 24 hours.
(b) Drain the water from the sample and place in a pan of sufficient size to permit the sample to be spread in a thin layer. Expose the sample to a gentle moving current of warm air, with the use of an electric heater, and stir frequently with a trowel to insure drying. When the sample approaches the surface dry condition, transfer the sample to a smaller pan to slow down the drying process. This aids in the detection of the surface dry condition. At this point, it is necessary to stir continuously to insure uniform drying of the sample. The trowel is used to check the surface dry condition of the aggregate by running it horizontally through the aggregate several times and checking immediately for moisture. The surface dry condition is reached when moisture is visible on the tip of the trowel covering approximately 40 mm (1 1/2 in.) from the tip end.
(c) Weigh the saturated surface dry sample and record the weight. Record this and all subsequent weights to the nearest gram.
(d) Dry in the oven to constant weight at a temperature of 110 ± 5 °C [230 ± 9 °F], cool in air at room temperature and weigh.

Calculate the absorption as follows:

Absorption, percent=\frac{100(B - A)}{A}
Where:
A = weight (mass) of oven-dry sample in air, g, and
B = weight (mass) of saturated-surface-dry sample in air, g.

1005.4.2.5 Unit Weight

Aggregate shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 19.

1005.4.2.6 Los Angeles Abrasion

Coarse aggregate shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 96.

1005.4.2.7 Deleterious Content

The percentage of deleterious substances for coarse aggregate is to be determined according to General Requirements for Material-Percent Other Deleterious Substances, Clay Lumps and Shale in Fine Aggregate. Where field determinations show a total deleterious content of 2.0 percent or less, including not more than 0.5 percent shale, the deleterious content shall be inspected visually. The sample is to be tested if visual inspection indicates more than 2.0 percent total deleterious material present in the sample. Source approval samples shall always be tested regardless of the content of deleterious material.

The percentage of lightweight particles in fine aggregate shall be determined according to AASHTO T 113, except the heavy liquid shall be a solution of zinc chloride and water of having a specific gravity of 2.00 ± 0.01.

The other deleterious substances, clay lumps, and shale in fine aggregate shall be visually determined and separated into the constituents required by the applicable Specification when an examination of the sample prepared for sieve analysis indicates a need for exact determination of deleterious content. Percentages shall be calculated as follows:

P=\frac{C\times100}{W}
Where:
P = Percentage of deleterious material
W = Weight (mass) of test sample
C = Actual weight (mass) of deleterious material.

1005.4.2.8 Mortar Strength

Fine aggregate subjected to the mortar strength test shall produce a mortar having a tensile strength at the age of seven days of at least 90 percent of that developed at the same age by mortar of the same proportions, consistency, made of the same cement, and Standard Ottawa sand. Tests shall be AASHTO T 132. Cement used in the tests shall be Type I meeting the requirements of Specification Sec 1019.

1005.4.2.9 Soundness

Coarse aggregate shall be tested in accordance with MoDOT Test Method T 14 and AASHTO T104 Sodium Sulfate.

1005.4.2.10 Soundness by Use of Sodium or Magnesium Sulfate

Lightweight aggregate and coarse aggregate shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 104.

1005.4.2.11 Potential Alkali Reactivity of Carbonate Rocks

Coarse aggregate for PCCP shall be tested in accordance with ASTM C586.

1005.4.2.12 Rapid Freeze-Thaw

Coarse aggregate for PCCP shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T161 (Method B).

1005.4.2.13 Mortar Bar Expansion

Coarse aggregate for PCCP shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO TP-12-93 (SHRP 2009).

1005.4.2.14 Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

Coarse aggregate for PCCP shall be tested in accordance with SHRP 2013.

1005.4.2.15 Drying Shrinkage

The drying shrinkage for lightweight aggregate shall be determined for concrete specimens prepared and tested in accordance with the provisions of Sec 8.4 of AASHTO M 195.

1005.4.2.16 Colormetric Test

Fine aggregate shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T21, Alternate B.

1005.4.3 Sample Record

The sample record shall be completed in SiteManager, as described in Automation Sec 3510, and shall indicate acceptance, qualified acceptance, or rejection. Appropriate remarks, as described in Reporting Test Results, are to be included in the remarks to clarify conditions of acceptance or rejection. Test results shall be reported on the appropriate templates under the Tests tab.