616.18 Construction Inspection Guidelines for Sec 616

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Traffic Control Plan (for Sec 616.1)

The traffic control plan set up in the contract is to be studied very carefully. Generally, traffic control plans are custom designed for each project. This plan is to cover all construction phases needed to construct the project, but it may be necessary to adjust it to adequately protect the public or the workers. If changes to the traffic control plans are being considered, the project designers and/or district traffic staff are to be consulted based on the magnitude of the proposed changes.

documentation record (Form C-258)
The MoDOT Temporary Traffic Control Inspection Worksheet
Approved Products Lists
Traffic's Approved Products List
More Information
Missouri Department of Transportation Policy for the Use of Dynamic/Changeable Message Signs

Material (for Sec 616.2)

All traffic control devices used on a project need to meet the requirements of MoDOT and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, (MUTCD). The MUTCD and the standard plans include drawings and dimensions for the most commonly used traffic control devices. The construction inspector is responsible to collect the required certifications for devices and materials used on the project, check devices against the approved products lists of Material's Qualified Lists and Traffic's Approved Products List, to do a visual inspection to ensure devices conform to the "MUTCD" and our specifications and are not damaged. Confirmation of this information is entered in to SiteManager. Generally certifications are required for sign sheeting and other temporary traffic control devices as described in Sec 1063.

Safety Requirements (for Sec 616.3)

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For Sec. 616.3.1

All workers shall wear Class 2 or Class 3 safety apparel within the highway right of way. Safety apparel should consist of two material types: background and retroreflective. Background material is normally a colored fluorescent material intended to be highly conspicuous but not retroreflective. Retroreflective material should reflect light back to a light source (ex. vehicle headlights) in low light or nighttime conditions.

Additional Safety Apparel Information
OSHA Rules
FHWA Worker Visibility Rules
ANSI/ISEA 107-2004 Standards
ANSI-ISEA 107-2004 Quick Reference

Class 2 apparel should cover the torso area and normally consists of a vest or shirt. Class 2 apparel should consist of a minimum of 775 sq. in. of background material and at least 201 sq. in. of retroreflective material.

Class 3 apparel should provide greater visibility for the wearer and should provide a full range of body movements. Class 3 apparel normally consists of a full-sleeved top or a Class 2 vest or shirt with Class E pants. Class 3 material should consists of 1,240 sq. in. of background material with at least 310 sq. in. of retroreflective material.

All manufactured safety apparel should have a tag inside the collar stating if the apparel meets Class 2 or Class 3.

For Sec. 616.3.2

The ROAD CLOSED sign may now be placed on the Type III barricade face. The sign does not need to be placed on a separate sign support post. Placement on the barricade face will require the use of a roll-up sign, lightweight plastic sign substrates or corrugated plastic sign panel to be considered crashworthy. Metal signs are not allowed. The use of ordinary hardware snaps (two male fasteners, with screw, on each of the top two rails and a female fastener near each of the sign corners) make for an efficient means of affixing a roll-up sign, with or without its ribs, to the face of a Type III barricade, while providing an effective and safe installation.

Coldmilled areas not intended to be the final driving surface on a roadway, specifically on milling and resurfacing projects, but are opened to traffic prior to being resurfaced, may present hazardous conditions for motorcyclists and drivers of small vehicles or other passenger vehicles with certain type of tire treads. For this reason, where coarse milled surfaces are present as the driving surface, the contractor shall, at the contractor's expense, deploy advance signing on the roadway to inform motorists of this condition. The signing may be in the form of either changeable message signs (CMS) or static signs, (refer to Standard Plan 616.10). The deployment of these signs shall be located far enough in advance to allow motorists the opportunity to take an alternate route or to slow to an acceptable speed to negotiate safely through that section of roadway. Specific guidelines are as follows:

  • Signing is to be present only when the milled surfaces are open to traffic.
  • Signing is to be deployed in advance of an exit from the mainline prior to the milled area to allow motorists an opportunity to take an alternate route.
  • Signing is also to be placed on any ramps leading into the area.
  • For the mainline roadway, the recommended display on CMS boards is a two-phased message as follows:
First Phase Message:
Second Phase Message:
(1) This line is to be left blank if both lanes are milled. If the milled surface is in only one lane, then this line should state which lane, specifically, LT LANE ….RT LANE.
  • For on-ramps or other accesses, the recommended display on CMS boards is a two-phased message as follows:
Grooved Pavement Ahead
First Phase Message:
Second Phase Message:
(2) This line is to be left blank if both lanes are milled. If the milled surface is in only one lane, then this line should state which lane, specifically, LT LANE ….RT LANE.
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The deployment of this signing is to be limited. Although not a contract requirement, on most milling and resurfacing projects, the resurfacing operation follows closely behind the milling operation. However, this condition may be present when the contractor elects to do otherwise or when weather conditions stop operations prior to finishing the resurfacing of milled areas.

For Sec. 616.3.3

All traffic control devices used on a project must also be NCHRP 350 compliant. Documentation of compliancy for NCHRP 350 is required for each type of device and needs to be placed in the project files. Small items like channelizers are self-certified by the manufacturer. Larger devices such as sign stands, barricades, etc. require an FHWA acceptance letter. The FHWA identifies their acceptance letters with a “WZ” number

For Sec 616.3.4

When the contract requires the contractor to designate a trained person at the project level with the primary responsibility for implementing the traffic management plan and other safety and mobility aspects of the project, the name of that person and proof, as required by the contract documents, should be provided by the contractor prior to work starting on that project, preferably at the pre-construction meeting.

Construction Requirements (for Sec 616.4)

When locating traffic control devices, consider the location of trees, sidewalks, billboards, commercial signs, etc. that may obscure the visibility of the devices. Minor adjustments to locations shown on the plans may be made to accommodate existing site conditions prior to installation.

Once in place, the location of all temporary traffic control devices are to be recorded in a bound field book and signed by the inspector making the entry. Changes in locations, devices or the traffic control plan are to be documented likewise. All temporary traffic control devices should be authorized by documentation record (Form C-258). Documentation records are created to document temporary traffic control devices that are normally removed or covered up as construction progresses (with the exception of permanent pavement marking). It may be helpful to check the EPG 109 Measurement and Payment to determine exactly which items need to be documented. It is important to issue the Documentation record promptly to let the contractor know what is going to be paid while the temporary devices are still in place so that if the contractor has a dispute the issue can be resolved before the device is removed or changed.

Additional documentation, such as videotape, may also be considered depending on the location and project. Videotapes are to be considered at the start of the construction project and each time a significant change occurs in the traffic control or when a new stage of the traffic control plan is implemented.

Speed limits: Refer to EPG 616.29 Work Zone Speed Limits for guidance on setting work zone speed limits.

For Sec 616.4.1

It is very important to continually check temporary traffic control devices to see that they are adequate, kept in good repair, clean and covered, set aside or removed when no longer needed. Make sure any permanent traffic control devices in conflict with the temporary traffic control devices (such as speed limit signs) are covered or removed. Frequent nighttime inspections are to be made to ensure that the devices have the proper reflectivity or lighting so they are visible and meaningful to the traveling public. Refer to the Quality Standards for Temporary Traffic Control Devices for further guidance. The MoDOT Temporary Traffic Control Inspection Worksheet provides a checklist that the inspector may find helpful when inspecting work zones.

According to Standard Plan 616.10, the mounting height for Type 2 portable signs may be 12 in. when the installation is for three days or less. This means that Type 2 portable signs may be used on work zones that the location varies from day to day and does not occupy the same location for more than three consecutive days, such as asphalt paving operations, guardrail installations, diamond grinding, etc. In such cases, the project may be ongoing for months, but the work zone locations moves up and down the roadway and do not occupy the same location from day to day.

For Sec 616.4.1.1

Although there is not a safety issue with stowing along the side of the roadway temporary traffic control products such as channelizers, the contractor should stow them in an orderly manner to be appeasing to the driving public.

Leaving equipment running on the shoulders with no workers present or having equipment running with an operator present, but with no intent to do work, should be considered as non-construction hours. In accordance with Secs 107.5.3 and 616.4.1.1 of the standard specifications, the equipment is to be removed and all work zone devices to be removed or covered. The exception would be when the roadway must be kept closed for other reasons, such as the concrete in pavement repairs to gain strength, asphalt to cool to allowable temperatures, pavement marking material to cure/dry, etc.

For Sec 616.4.2

With the exception of contract overlays on two-lane highways and a few other exceptions, MoDOT’s construction contracts traditionally specify and include pay quantities for only one set of lane drop signs. The reason is that in the design stage it has not been determined how the contractor will pursue the work, so the sets of signs are kept to a minimum to avoid adding unneeded costs to a project. However, for diamond grinding, asphalt overlays and similar work on divided highways it makes good sense to allow the contractor to provide an additional set of signs to expedite the work. Additional signs approved by the engineer to adequately protect the public and the work, or to expedite the work, the contractor should be reimbursed in accordance with Sec. 616.4.2.3.

Deficiencies in Traffic Control Measures (For Sec 616.4.2.5)

The timeframe for correcting deficiencies in traffic control is based on the exposure. The exposure can be viewed as the danger the deficiency presents to travelers, the workers or the work site. The inspector must use good judgment to determine the severity of the exposure. To help determine the severity of the exposure, categories of severity of exposure have been established and implemented into the standard specifications.

Criteria for enforcement has been provided as well and needs to be strictly enforced as outlined in Sec 616.4.2.5. The intent of the specification is for the contractor to provide quality control of traffic control devices and to maintain a safe work zone environment. The contractor should monitor the work zone area as needed or agreed upon to identify and correct traffic control deficiencies. MoDOT is to provide quality assurance. The engineer or inspector verbally or in writing notifies the contractor of the deficiency when a traffic control deficiency is observed, in accordance with Sec 616.4.2.5.

The timeframes to correct deficiencies should conform as closely as possible to those provided within the specifications. In the case of extensive deficiencies or unavailability of necessary material to correct a deficiency, such as may occur when a truck wipes out multiple signs and other work zone devices, the engineer may need to alot additional time to the contractor. During the initial notification, the engineer and contractor should mutually agree on both what is to be accomplished and when to rectify a deficiency. This mutual agreement and good, continuous communication between the contractor and engineer establishes what the specifications refer to as a good faith effort.

If the contractor does not correct the deficiency within the timeframe as agreed upon with the engineer after the initial notification, an order record is issued and the contractor is given the allocated time period as stated in the specification.

According to Sec 616., if the contractor does not correct the deficiency by the timeframe set in Sec 616., the engineer may issue a second order record or suspend the work in accordance with Sec 105.

In accordance with Sec 616., when the contractor is not adequately providing quality control and the contractor is continuously being notified of similar, reoccuring deficiencies, the steps outlined in Sec 616. may be bypassed and an order record and subsequent order records may be issued by the engineer in accordance with Sec 616. Prior to this, the contractor should be made aware that these provisions will be implemented if the contractor’s quality control does not improve. At the time of such notification, which may be verbal but is recommended to be documented in writing, the contractor and the engineer should mutually agree on what actions the contractor needs to take to avoid issuance of order records in accordance with Sec 616.

Implementing Sec 105 should be a last resort. Before such action is taken, the Resident Engineer should be consulted.

Flagger Requirements (for Sec 616.4.3)

Flagger certifications are to be verified. Acceptable certification agents include American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA), National Safety Council, AGC, in-house training programs, etc. Each flagger is to have stop/slow paddle and a two-way radio or walkie-talkie. Flaggers should wear ANSI Class 2 apparel for flaggers during daytime and nighttime operations, which may be verified by checking labels on the apparel as described in Sec 616.3.

Ideally, at night, flaggers should have a hat, vest and pants to provide the best visibility although armbands, leg bands, etc. are acceptable. All flagger stations need to be lit during nighttime operations.

Pilot vehicle

The pilot vehicle operator needs to be certified as a flagger and certification is to be verified. The pilot vehicle needs to be equipped with a communication device, the “Pilot Car Follow Me” sign and a warning light. A “Please Wait for Pilot Car” sign should be placed at all roads within the limits of the one-lane/two-way operations not controlled by a flagger.

The Automated Flagger Assistance Device (AFAD) operator needs to be certified as a flagger and certification should be verified. The AFAD should be the Type B (Red/Yellow Lens). For typical AFAD applications, refer to EPG 616.23.3.7A. Until the next MUTCD update, the technical provisions for AFADs can be located within the “Interim Approvals Issued by FHWA” or http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/res-interim_approvals.htm.

The Portable Signal Flagging Device (PSFD) operator needs to be certified as a flagger and certification should be verified. For typical PSFD applications, refer to EPG 616.23.3.7B.

Law Enforcement (for Sec 616.4.4)

When law enforcement is specified in the contract, the engineer and contractor should review the contractor’s working hours and work schedule and decide upon the best times for law enforcement to be effective. The engineer is responsible for coordinating with local law enforcement. At the pre-construction meeting, the engineer, contractor and law enforcement agencies should finalize the expectations of times, schedules, scope and logistics of projects. Payment to law enforcement will be made through the Commission.

Lighting Requirements (for Sec 616.5)

The contractor should submit work zone lighting plans two weeks prior to construction. It is recommended that the inspector consult district traffic personnel to help review lighting plans and to make any recommended changes. Typical work zone lighting may include dirigible lighting, portable light towers, balloon lighting, lights attached to equipment or post-mounted lights. In some cases, existing lighting or ambient lighting may meet lighting level requirements. The inspector may wish to check lighting levels with a photometric light meter if there are any questions or concerns about the light being provided. Check to make sure that all construction vehicles and equipment required to have warning lights have them activated while in the work zone. Work zone lighting is included as a pay item when the contract documents mandate that the work is to be done at night. If the contractor opts to do work at night, then a contract price may be negotiated if it is determined that working at night is in the best interest of the motoring public and/or the Department. Regardless if work zone lighting is specified in the contract or not, all lighting needs to be in accordance with the specifications.

If temporary lighting is specified in the contract, consult the plans for installation and EPG 901.16 Construction Inspection Guidelines for Sec 901 for guidance on inspection.

Flashing Arrow Panels (for Sec 616.6)

Proposed locations are to be verified for visibility and sight distance. Depending on geometrics and traffic conditions such as curves, hills, traffic back ups, etc., it may be necessary to relocate flashing arrow panels.

Changeable Message Signs (for Sec 616.7)

It is important to verify that the changeable message sign (CMS) is installed according to Standard Plan 616.10. It may be necessary to make minor adjustments or temporary modifications to the location to meet these requirements if the proposed location is in a ditch, driveway, guardrail, sidewalk, rock cut, etc.

Changeable message signs need to be operated in accordance with the Missouri Department of Transportation Policy for the Use of Dynamic/Changeable Message Signs. The CMS is not to be used to repeat static sign messages. The flash rate should be checked to see that motorists are able to read the sign as they approach the work zone. When not in use, the CMS needs to be turned away from traffic or removed from the roadway if it will not be required for more than 24 hours. A document log needs to be maintained in the inspector’s diary on when and what messages are displayed on CMS, to include when no messages were shown.

Work Zone Traffic Signals (for Sec 616.8)

When traffic signals are specified in the contract, the contractor will provide the timing plan for approval and will also provide whatever detection they feel will best fit the situation. District traffic is to be consulted to help review timing plans and detection zones. Overhead lighting must be provided at each signal location.

Basis of Payment (for Sec 616.10)

There are many items of work that are considered incidental. These incidental items should not have a pay item included in the plans since their cost is included in the larger activity they are associated with.

Devices requiring corrective action or repairs due to the contractor’s operations or normal wear and tear are not reimbursable. Where the contractor has received approval for the installation of additional devices due to omissions in the plans, field conditions or extenuating circumstances, quantities should be adjusted and reimbursement provided to the contractor. If necessary, a price should be negotiated for devices not originally covered in the contract. If the contractor receives approval for the installation of additional devices solely for the benefit of their operation, reimbursement is not made.

Refer to Sec 616.10 for a complete listing of items typically not paid for.

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