903.1 Highway Signing General Information
- 1 903.19.1 Discussion (MUTCD Section 1A.00)
- 2 903.19.2 Purpose of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.01)
- 3 903.19.3 Principles of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.02)
- 4 903.19.4 Design of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.03)
- 5 903.19.5 Placement and Operation of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.04)
- 6 903.19.6 Maintenance of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.05)
- 7 903.19.7 Uniformity of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.06)
- 8 903.19.8 Authority for Placement of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.08)
- 9 903.19.9 Engineering Study and Engineering Judgment (MUTCD Section 1A.09)
- 10 903.19.10 Interpretations, Experimentations, Changes and Interim Approvals (MUTCD Section 1A.10)
- 11 903.19.11 Relation to Other Publications (MUTCD Section 1A.11)
- 12 903.19.12 Color Code (MUTCD Section 1A.12)
- 13 903.19.13 Definitions (MUTCD Section 1A.13)
- 14 903.19.14 Abbreviations Used on Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.14)
903.19.1 Discussion (MUTCD Section 1A.00)
Support. Sections 226.010 and 227.220 of the revised statutes of the state of Missouri authorize MoDOT to prescribe uniform traffic control devices on the state highways. Pursuant to the provisions of the above statutes, the Missouri Highways and Transportation Commission at the July 10, 2001 commission meeting approved and adopted the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD).
This article provides additional standards for design and application of traffic control devices in Missouri. This article is not a substitute for engineering judgment. It is the intent that the provisions of this article be standards for traffic control devices installed, but not a legal requirement for their installation. The need for a traffic control device will be based on the engineer's judgment and of their knowledge of its need.
This article contains standards, guidance and options for the signing within the right of way of all types of highways open to public travel.
The districts are responsible for proper review of signing plans for accuracy, to ensure that standards are met and that deviations from the standards are justified.
Any traffic control device design or application provision contained in this article shall be considered to be in the public domain. Traffic control devices contained in this article shall not be protected by a patent, trademark, or copyright except for the Interstate Shield and any other items owned by FHWA.
903.19.2 Purpose of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.01)
Support. The purpose of traffic control devices, as well as the principles for their use, is to promote highway safety and efficiency by providing for the orderly movement of all travelers on streets and highways throughout the nation.
Traffic control devices notify travelers of regulations and provide warning and guidance needed for the reasonably safe, uniform and efficient operation of all elements of the traffic stream.
Standard. Traffic control devices or their supports shall not bear any advertising message or any other message that is not related to traffic control.
Support. Tourist-oriented directional signs and Specific Service signs are not considered advertising; rather, they are classified as motorist service signs.
903.19.3 Principles of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.02)
Support. This article contains the basic principles that govern the design and use of traffic control devices for all streets and highways open to public travel regardless of type or class or the public agency having jurisdiction. This article’s text specifies the restriction on the use of a device if it is intended for limited application or for a specific system. It is important that these principles be given primary consideration in the selection and application of each device.
Guidance. To be effective, a traffic control device should meet five basic requirements:
A. Fulfill a need;
B. Command attention;
C. Convey a clear, simple meaning;
D. Command respect from road users; and
E. Give adequate time for proper response.
Design, placement, operation, maintenance and uniformity are aspects that should be carefully considered in order to maximize the ability of a traffic control device to meet the five requirements listed in the previous paragraph. Vehicle speed should be carefully considered as an element that governs the design, operation, placement and location of various traffic control devices.
The actions required of travelers to obey regulatory devices should be specified by state statute, or in cases not covered by state statute, by local ordinance or resolution consistent with the “Uniform Vehicle Code.”
The proper use of traffic control devices should provide the reasonable and prudent road user with the information necessary to reasonably safely and lawfully use the streets, highways, pedestrian facilities and bikeways.
Support. Uniformity of the meaning of traffic control devices is vital to their effectiveness. The meanings ascribed to devices in this article are in general accord with the publications mentioned in 903.19.11.
903.19.4 Design of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.03)
Guidance. Devices should be designed so that features such as size, shape, color, composition, lighting or retroreflection, and contrast are combined to draw attention to the devices; that size, shape, color, and simplicity of message combine to produce a clear meaning; that legibility and size combine with placement to permit adequate time for response; and that uniformity, size, legibility, and reasonableness of the message combine to command respect.
Standard. All symbols shall be unmistakably similar to or mirror images of the adopted symbol signs, all of which are shown in Standard Highway Signs (see 903.19.11). Symbols and colors shall not be modified unless otherwise stated herein. All symbols and colors for signs not shown in Standard Highway Signs shall follow the procedures for experimentation and change described in 903.19.10.
Guidance. Aspects of a device’s design should be modified only if there is a demonstrated need.
Support. An example of modifying a device’s design would be to modify the Side Road (W2-2) sign to show a second offset intersecting road.
Option. MoDOT may develop word message signs to notify travelers of special regulations or to warn travelers of a situation that might not be readily apparent. Unlike symbol signs and colors, new word message signs may be used without the need for experimentation. With the exception of symbols and colors, minor modifications in the specific design elements of a device may be made provided the essential appearance characteristics are preserved. Although the standard design of symbol signs cannot be modified, it may be appropriate to change the orientation of the symbol to better reflect the direction of travel.
903.19.5 Placement and Operation of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.04)
Guidance. Placement of a traffic control device should be within the traveler’s view so that adequate visibility is provided. To aid in conveying the proper meaning, the traffic control device should be appropriately positioned with respect to the location, object or situation to which it applies. The location and legibility of the traffic control device should give a traveler adequate time to make the proper response in both day and night conditions.
Traffic control devices should be placed and operated in a uniform and consistent manner.
Unnecessary traffic control devices should be removed. The fact that a device is in good physical condition is not a basis for deferring needed removal or change.
903.19.6 Maintenance of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.05)
Guidance. Functional maintenance of traffic control devices should be used to determine whether certain devices need to be changed to meet current traffic conditions.
Physical maintenance of traffic control devices should be performed to retain the legibility and visibility of the device and to retain the proper functioning of the device.
Support. Clean, legible, properly mounted devices in good working condition command the respect of road users.
903.19.7 Uniformity of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.06)
Support. Uniformity of devices simplifies the task of the traveler because it aids in recognition and understanding, thereby reducing perception/reaction time. Uniformity assists travelers, law enforcement officers, and traffic courts by giving everyone the same interpretation. Uniformity assists public highway officials through efficiency in manufacture, installation, maintenance and administration. Uniformity means treating similar situations in a similar way. The use of uniform traffic control devices does not, in itself, constitute uniformity. A standard device used where it is not appropriate is as objectionable as a nonstandard device; in fact, this might be worse, because such misuse might result in disrespect at those locations where the device is needed and appropriate.
903.19.8 Authority for Placement of Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.08)
Standard. Traffic control devices, advertisements, announcements and other signs or messages within the highway right of way shall be placed only as authorized by MoDOT for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic.
When MoDOT has granted proper authority, others such as contractors and public utility companies shall be permitted to install temporary traffic control devices in temporary traffic control zones. Such traffic control devices shall conform to the standards of the Engineering Policy Guide and the MUTCD.
Guidance. Any unauthorized traffic control device or other sign or message placed on the highway right of way by a private organization or individual constitutes a public nuisance and should be removed. All unofficial or nonessential traffic control devices, signs or messages should be removed.
Standard. All regulatory traffic control devices shall be supported by laws, ordinances or regulations.
Support. Provisions of this manual are based upon the concept that effective traffic control depends upon both appropriate application of the devices and reasonable enforcement of the regulations.
903.19.9 Engineering Study and Engineering Judgment (MUTCD Section 1A.09)
Standard. This article describes the application of traffic control devices but shall not be a legal requirement for their installation.
Guidance. The decision to use a particular device at a particular location should be made on the basis of either an engineering study or the application of engineering judgment. Thus, while this article provides standards, guidance and options for design and application of traffic control devices, this article should not be considered a substitute for engineering judgment.
Engineering judgment should be exercised in the selection and application of traffic control devices, as well as in the location and design of the roads and streets that the devices complement. Jurisdictions with responsibility for traffic control that do not have engineers on their staffs should seek engineering assistance from others such as the state transportation agency, their county, a nearby large city or a traffic engineering consultant.
903.19.10 Interpretations, Experimentations, Changes and Interim Approvals (MUTCD Section 1A.10)
Standard. Design, application and placement of traffic control devices other than those adopted in the the MUTCD or this article shall be prohibited unless the provisions of this article are followed.
Support. Continuing advances in technology will produce changes in the highway, vehicle and traveler proficiency; therefore, portions of the system of traffic control devices in this article will require updating. In addition, unique situations often arise for device applications that might require interpretation or clarification of this article. It is important to have a procedure for recognizing these developments and for introducing new ideas and modifications into the system.
Standard. Requests for any interpretation, permission to experiment, interim approval or change shall be sent to Traffic and then to the Federal Highway Administration, Office of Transportation Operations, 400 Seventh Street, SW, HOTO, Washington, DC 20590.
Support. An interpretation includes a consideration of the application and operation of standard traffic control devices, official meanings of standard traffic control devices or the variations from standard device designs.
Guidance. Requests for an interpretation of this article should contain the following information:
A. A concise statement of the interpretation being sought;
B. A description of the condition that provoked the need for an interpretation;
C. Any illustration that would be helpful to understand the request; and
D. Any supporting research data that is pertinent to the item to be interpreted.
Support. Requests to experiment include consideration of field deployment for the purpose of testing or evaluating a new traffic control device, its application or manner of use or a provision not specifically described in this article.
A request for permission to experiment will be considered only when submitted by the public agency or private toll facility responsible for the operation of the road or street on which the experiment is to take place.
A diagram indicating the process for experimenting with traffic control devices is shown in Figure 903.19.10.1.
Guidance. The request for permission to experiment should contain the following:
A. A statement indicating the nature of the problem.
B. A description of the proposed change to the traffic control device or application of the traffic control device, how it was developed, the manner in which it deviates from the standard and how it is expected to be an improvement over existing standards.
C. Any illustration that would be helpful to understand the traffic control device or use of the traffic control device.
D. Any supporting data explaining how the traffic control device was developed, if it has been tried, in what ways it was found to be adequate or inadequate and how this choice of device or application was derived.
E. A legally binding statement certifying that the concept of the traffic control device is not protected by a patent or copyright. (An example of a traffic control device concept would be countdown pedestrian signals in general. Ordinarily an entire general concept would not be patented or copyrighted, but if it were it would not be acceptable for experimentation unless the patent or copyright owner signs a waiver of rights acceptable to the FHWA. An example of a patented or copyrighted specific device within the general concept of countdown pedestrian signals would be a manufacturer’s design for its specific brand of countdown signal, including the design details of the housing or electronics that are unique to that manufacturer’s product. As long as the general concept is not patented or copyrighted, it is acceptable for experimentation to incorporate the use of one or more patented devices of one or several manufacturers.)
F. The time period and location(s) of the experiment.
G. A detailed research or evaluation plan that must provide for close monitoring of the experimentation, especially in the early stages of its field implementation. The evaluation plan should include before and after studies as well as quantitative data describing the performance of the experimental device.
H. An agreement to restore the site of the experiment to a condition that complies with the provisions of this manual within 3 months following the end of the time period of the experiment. This agreement must also provide that the agency sponsoring the experimentation will terminate the experimentation at any time that it determines significant safety concerns are directly or indirectly attributable to the experimentation. The FHWA’s Office of Transportation Operations has the right to terminate approval of the experimentation at any time if there is an indication of safety concerns. If, as a result of the experimentation, a request is made that this manual be changed to include the device or application being experimented with, the device or application will be permitted to remain in place until an official rulemaking action has occurred.
I. An agreement to provide semiannual progress reports for the duration of the experimentation, and an agreement to provide a copy of the final results of the experimentation to the FHWA’s Office of Transportation Operations within 3 months following completion of the experimentation. The FHWA’s Office of Transportation Operations has the right to terminate approval of the experimentation if reports are not provided according to this schedule.
Support. A change includes consideration of a new device to replace a present standard device, an additional device to be added to the list of standard devices or a revision to a traffic control device application or placement criteria.
Guidance. Requests for a change to this manual should contain the following information:
A. A statement indicating what change is proposed;
B. Any illustration that would be helpful to understand the request; and
C. Any supporting research data that is pertinent to the item to be reviewed.
Support. Requests for interim approval include consideration of allowing interim use, pending official rulemaking, of a new traffic control device, a revision to the application or manner of use of an existing traffic control device or a provision not specifically described in this article. If granted, interim approval will result in the traffic control device or application being placed into the next scheduled rulemaking process for revisions to this article. The device or application will be permitted to remain in place, under any conditions established in the interim approval, until an official rulemaking action has occurred.
Interim approval is considered based on the results of successful experimentation, results of analytical or laboratory studies, and/or review of non-U.S. experience with a traffic control device or application. Interim approval considerations include an assessment of relative risks, benefits and costs. Interim approval includes conditions that jurisdictions agree to comply with in order to use the traffic control device or application until an official rulemaking action has occurred.
Guidance. The request for permission to place a traffic control device under interim approval should contain the following:
A. A statement indicating the nature of the problem.
B. A description of the proposed change to the traffic control device or application of the traffic control device, how it was developed, the manner in which it deviates from the standard and how it is expected to be an improvement over existing standards.
C. The location(s) where it will be used and any illustration that would be helpful to understand the traffic control device or use of the traffic control device.
D. A legally binding statement certifying that the concept of the traffic control device is not protected by a patent or copyright. (An example of a traffic control device concept would be countdown pedestrian signals in general. Ordinarily an entire general concept would not be patented or copyrighted, but if it were it would not be acceptable for interim approval unless the patent or copyright owner signs a waiver of rights acceptable to the FHWA. An example of a patented or copyrighted specific device within the general concept of countdown pedestrian signals would be a manufacturer’s design for its specific brand of countdown signal, including the design details of the housing or electronics that are unique to that manufacturer’s product. Interim approval of a specific patented or copyrighted product is not acceptable.)
E. A detailed completed research or evaluation on this traffic control device.
F. An agreement to restore the site(s) of the interim approval to a condition that complies with the provisions in this manual within 3 months following the issuance of a final rule on this traffic control device. This agreement must also provide that the agency sponsoring the interim approval will terminate use of the device or application installed under the interim approval at any time that it determines significant safety concerns are directly or indirectly attributable to the device or application. The FHWA’s Office of Transportation Operations has the right to terminate the interim approval at any time if there is an indication of safety concerns.
Option. MoDOT may submit a request for interim approval for all jurisdictions in that state so long as the request contains the information listed in the guidance above.
Standard. Once an interim approval is granted to any jurisdiction for a particular traffic control device or application, subsequent jurisdictions shall be granted interim approval for that device or application by submitting a letter to the FHWA Office of Transportation Operations indicating they will abide by Item F above and the specific conditions contained in the original interim approval.
A local jurisdiction using a traffic control device or application under an interim approval that was granted either directly to that jurisdiction or on a statewide basis based on the state’s request shall inform the state of the locations of such use.
Support. A diagram indicating the process for incorporating new traffic control devices into this manual is shown in Figure 903.19.10.2.
For additional information concerning interpretations, experimentation, changes or interim approvals, write to the FHWA, 400 Seventh Street, SW, HOTO, Washington, DC 20590, or visit the MUTCD website at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov.
903.19.11 Relation to Other Publications (MUTCD Section 1A.11)
Standard. To the extent that they are incorporated by specific reference, the latest editions of the following publications, or those editions specifically noted, shall be a part of this manual: MUTCD, Standard Highway Signs (FHWA) and Color Specifications for Retroreflective Sign and Pavement Marking Materials (appendix to subpart F of Part 655 of Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations).
The MUTCD is incorporated into this article by reference in 23 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 655, Subpart F and shall be recognized as the national standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street, highway or bicycle trail open to public travel in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 109(d) and 402(a). The policies and procedures of the FHWA to obtain basic uniformity of traffic control devices shall be as described in 23 CFR 655, Subpart F.
Support. Missouri Sign Detail article contains detailed drawings and specifications for all signs listed herein. Any deviation from these drawings can be made only with the approval of the State Traffic Engineer. Copies of this publication may be obtained from Traffic or its website. Most of the arrows and symbols are made for both right- and left-hand indications. While only one design is shown in each case, the symbols can be reversed without change in any dimension.
The Standard Highway Signs includes standard alphabets and symbols for highway signs and pavement markings.
For information about the above publications, visit the Federal Highway Administration’s MUTCD website at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov, or write to the FHWA, 400 Seventh Street, SW, HOTO, Washington, DC 20590.
The publication entitled Federal-Aid Highway Program Guidance on High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes is available at the website http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/operations/hovguide01.htm, or write to the FHWA, 400 Seventh Street, SW, HOTM, Washington, DC 20590.
903.19.11.1 Other Useful Publications. Other publications that are useful sources of information with respect to use with this article are listed below. See 903.19.11.2 for ordering information for the following publications:
1. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001 Edition (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials—AASHTO)
2. Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 1999 Edition (AASHTO)
3. Guide to Metric Conversion, 1993 Edition (AASHTO)
4. Guidelines for the Selection of Supplemental Guide Signs for Traffic Generators Adjacent to Freeways, 2001 Edition (AASHTO)
5. List of Control Cities for Use in Guide Signs on Interstate Highways, 2001 Edition (AASHTO)
6. Roadside Design Guide, 2001 Edition (AASHTO)
7. Standard Specifications for Movable Highway Bridges, 1988 Edition (AASHTO)
8. Traffic Engineering Metric Conversion Folders— Addendum to the Guide to Metric Conversion, 1993 Edition (AASHTO)
9. 2000 AREMA Communications & Signals Manual, American Railway Engineering & Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA)
10. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access—Part 2—Best Practices Design Guide, 2001 Edition (FHWA) [Publication No. FHWA-EP-01-027]
11. Practice for Roadway Lighting, RP-8, 2001, Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)
12. Safety Guide for the Prevention of Radio Frequency Radiation Hazards in the Use of Commercial Electric Detonators (Blasting Caps), Safety Library Publication No. 20, Institute of Makers of Explosives
13. American National Standard for High-Visibility Safety Apparel, (ANSI/ISEA 107-1999), 1999 Edition, ISEA - The Safety Equipment Association.
14. Manual of Traffic Signal Design, 1998 Edition (Institute of Transportation Engineers—ITE)
15. Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies, 1994 Edition (ITE)
16. Pedestrian Traffic Control Signal Indications, 1985 Edition (ITE)
17. Preemption of Traffic Signals at or Near Railroad Grade Crossings with Active Warning Devices, (ITE)
18. Purchase Specification for Flashing and Steady Burn Warning Lights, 1981 Edition (ITE)
19. School Trip Safety Program Guidelines, 1984 Edition (ITE)
20. Traffic Detector Handbook, 1991 Edition (ITE)
21. Traffic Engineering Handbook, 1999 Edition (ITE)
22. Traffic Signal Lamps, 1980 Edition (ITE)
23. Traffic Control Devices Handbook, 2001 Edition (ITE)
24. Vehicle Traffic Control Signal Heads, Part 1—1985 Edition; Part 2—1998 Edition (ITE)
25. Uniform Vehicle Code (UVC) and Model Traffic Ordinance, 2000 Edition (National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances)
26. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR), General Safety and Health Provisions - 1926.20, amended June 30, 1993, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
27. Highway Capacity Manual, 2000 Edition (Transportation Research Board—TRB)
28. Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features, (NCHRP Report 350), 1993 Edition (Transportation Research Board - TRB)
29. Accessible Pedestrian Signals, A-37, 1998 Edition, U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (The U.S. Access Board)
30. Building a True Community—Final Report—Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee (PRWAAC), 2001 Edition (The U.S. Access Board)
31. The Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG), July 1998 Edition (The U.S. Access Board)
32. Highway-Rail Intersection Architecture, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration (USDOT/FRA)
903.19.11.2 Addresses for Publications Referenced in the MUTCD.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) 444 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 249 Washington, DC 20001 www.transportation.org
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) 8201 Corporate Drive, Suite 1125 Landover, MD 20785-2230 www.arema.org
Federal Highway Administration Report Center Facsimile number: 301.577.1421 email@example.com
Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) 120 Wall Street, Floor 17 New York, NY 10005 www.iesna.org
Institute of Makers of Explosives 1120 19th Street, NW, Suite 310 Washington, DC 20036-3605 www.ime.org
Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) 1099 14th Street, NW, Suite 300 West Washington, DC 20005-3438 www.ite.org
International Organization for Standards c/o Mr. Gerard Kuso Austrian Standards Institute Heinestrabe 38 Postfach 130 A-1021 Wien, Austria www.iso.ch
ISEA - The Safety Equipment Association 1901 North Moore Street, Suite 808 Arlington, VA 22209 www.safetyequipment.org
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances (NCUTLO) 107 South West Street, Suite 110 Alexandria, VA 22314 www.ncutlo.org
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) U.S. Department of Labor 200 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20210 www.osha.gov
Transportation Research Board (TRB) The National Academies 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 www.nas.edu/trb
U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (The U.S. Access Board) 1331 F Street, NW, Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20004-1111 www.access-board.gov
903.19.12 Color Code (MUTCD Section 1A.12)
Support. The following color code establishes general meanings for 10 colors of a total of 13 colors that have been identified as being appropriate for use in conveying traffic control information. Central values and tolerance limits for each color are available from the Federal Highway Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW, HOTO, Washington, DC 20590, and at FHWA’s MUTCD website at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov.
The three colors for which general meanings have not yet been assigned are being reserved for future applications that will be determined only by FHWA after consultation with the states, the engineering community, and the general public. The meanings described in this article are of a general nature. More specific assignments of colors are given in the descriptions of each class of devices in other articles.
Standard. The general meaning of the 13 colors shall be as follows:
B. Blue—road user services guidance, tourist information, and evacuation route
C. Brown—recreational and cultural interest area guidance
E. Fluorescent Pink—incident management
F. Fluorescent Yellow-Green—pedestrian warning, bicycle warning, playground warning, school bus and school warning
G. Green—indicated movements permitted, direction guidance
H. Light Blue—unassigned
I. Orange—temporary traffic control
K. Red—stop or prohibition
903.19.13 Definitions (MUTCD Section 1A.13)
Standard. Unless otherwise defined herein, or in the other articles of this manual, definitions contained in the most recent edition of the Uniform Vehicle Code, AASHTO Transportation Glossary (Highway Definitions), and other publications specified in 903.19.11 are also incorporated and adopted by reference.
The following words and phrases, when used in traffic articles, shall have the following meanings:
1. Active Grade Crossing Warning System—the flashing-light signals, with or without warning gates, together with the necessary control equipment used to inform road users of the approach or presence of trains at highway-rail or highway-light rail transit grade crossings.
2. Approach—all lanes of traffic moving towards an intersection or a midblock location from one direction, including any adjacent parking lane(s).
3. Arterial Highway (Street)—a general term denoting a highway primarily used by through traffic, usually on a continuous route or a highway designated as part of an arterial system.
4. Average Day—a day representing traffic volumes normally and repeatedly found at a location. Where volumes are primarily influenced by employment, the average day is typically a weekday. When volumes are primarily influenced by entertainment or recreation, the average day is typically a weekend day.
5. Beacon—a highway traffic signal with one or more signal sections that operates in a flashing mode.
6. Bicycle—a pedal-powered vehicle upon which the human operator sits.
7. Bicycle Lane—a portion of a roadway that has been designated by signs and pavement markings for preferential or exclusive use by bicyclists.
8. Cardinal Direction-The official “East-West” or “North-South” direction of a route. An even numbered route should be classified as an “East-West” route and an odd numbered route should be classified as a “North-South” route.
9. Centerline Markings—the yellow pavement marking line(s) that delineates the separation of traffic lanes that have opposite directions of travel on a roadway. These markings need not be at the geometrical center of the pavement.
10. Changeable Message Sign—a sign that is capable of displaying more than one message, changeable manually, by remote control, or by automatic control. These signs are referred to as Dynamic Message Signs in the National Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Architecture.
11. Channelizing Line Marking—a wide or double solid white line used to form islands where traffic in the same direction of travel is permitted on both sides of the island.
12. Circular Intersection—an intersection that has an island, generally circular in design, located in the center of the intersection where traffic passes to the right of the island. Circular intersections include roundabouts, rotaries and traffic circles.
13. Clear Zone—the total roadside border area, starting at the edge of the travelway, available for an errant driver to stop or regain control of a vehicle. This area might consist of a shoulder, a recoverable slope and/or a nonrecoverable, traversable slope with a clear run-out area at its toe.
14. Commission-The Missouri Highways and Transportation Commission or its authorized representative.
15. Concurrent Flow HOV Lane—an HOV lane that is operated in the same direction as the adjacent mixed flow lanes, separated from the adjacent general purpose freeway lanes by a standard lane stripe, painted buffer or barrier.
16. Contraflow Lane—a lane operating in a direction opposite to the normal flow of traffic designated for peak direction of travel during at least a portion of the day. Contraflow lanes are usually separated from the off-peak direction lanes by plastic pylons, or by moveable or permanent barrier.
17. Control City-The city listed on guide signing lending additional information to the motorist to the general heading of the route. Control Cities for the Interstate system are defined in the AASHTO “List of control Cities for Use in Guide Signs on Interstate Highways”.
18. Conventional Route—a state highway that is neither a freeway nor an expressway.
19. Collector Highway—a term denoting a highway that in rural areas connects small towns and local highways to arterial highways, and in urban areas provides land access and traffic circulation within residential, commercial and business areas and connects local highways to the arterial highways.
20. Crashworthy—a characteristic of a roadside appurtenance that has been successfully crash tested according to a national standard such as the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 350, “Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features.”
21. Crosswalk—(a) that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway, and in the absence of a sidewalk on one side of the roadway, the part of a roadway included within the extension of the lateral lines of the sidewalk at right angles to the centerline; (b) any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated as a pedestrian crossing by lines on the surface, which may be supplemented by contrasting pavement texture, style, or color.
22. Crosswalk Lines—white pavement marking lines that identify a crosswalk.
23. Delineator—a retroreflective device mounted on the roadway surface or at the side of the roadway in a series to indicate the alignment of the roadway, especially at night or in adverse weather.
24. Detectable—having a continuous edge within 6 in. of the surface so that pedestrians who have visual disabilities can sense its presence and receive usable guidance information.
25. Dynamic Envelope—the clearance required for the train and its cargo overhang due to any combination of loading, lateral motion, or suspension failure.
26. Edge Line Markings—white or yellow pavement marking lines that delineate the right or left edge(s) of a travelway.
27. End-of-Roadway Marker—a device used to warn and alert road users of the end of a roadway in other than temporary traffic control zones.
28. Engineering Judgment—the evaluation of available pertinent information and the application of appropriate principles, standards, guidance and practices as contained in this manual and other sources, for the purpose of deciding upon the applicability, design, operation or installation of a traffic control device. Engineering judgment shall be exercised by an engineer or an individual working under the supervision of an engineer, through the application of procedures and criteria established by the engineer. Documentation of engineering judgment is not required.
29. Engineering Study—the comprehensive analysis and evaluation of available pertinent information and the application of appropriate principles, standards, guidance and practices as contained in this manual and other sources, for the purpose of deciding upon the applicability, design, operation or installation of a traffic control device. An engineering study shall be performed by an engineer or an individual working under the supervision of an engineer, through the application of procedures and criteria established by the engineer. An engineering study shall be documented.
30. Expressway—a divided state highway in which access may be provided through interchanges at crossroads and streets or at-grade intersections.
31. First Order Signing—signs that are installed in advance of the closest intersection where motorists turn off the state highway system to arrive at the traffic generator.
32. Flashing—an operation in which a signal indication is turned on and off repetitively.
33. Freeway—a divided state highway in which access is provided solely through interchanges at crossroads and streets rather than at grade intersections.
34. Guide Sign—a sign that shows route designations, destinations, directions, distances, services, points of interest or other geographical, recreational or cultural information.
35. High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)—a motor vehicle carrying at least two or more persons, including carpools, vanpools and buses.
36. Highway—a general term for denoting a public way for purposes of travel by vehicular travel including the entire area within the right-of-way.
37. Highway-Rail Grade Crossing—the general area where a highway and a railroad’s right of way cross at the same level, within which are included the railroad tracks, highway and traffic control devices for highway traffic traversing that area.
38. Highway Traffic Signal—a power-operated traffic control device by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific action. These devices do not include signals at toll plazas, power-operated signs, illuminated pavement markers, warning lights or steady burning electric lamps.
39. HOV Lane—any preferential lane designated for exclusive use by high-occupancy vehicles for all or part of a day including a designated lane on a freeway, other highway, street or independent roadway on a separate right-of-way.
40. Inherently Low Emission Vehicle (ILEV)—any kind of vehicle that, because of inherent properties of the fuel system design, will not have significant evaporative emissions, even if its evaporative emission control system has failed.
41. Interchange—a system of interconnecting roadways providing for traffic movement between two or more highways that do not intersect at grade.
42. Intermediate Interchange—an interchange with an urban or rural route that is not a major or minor interchange as defined herein.
43. Intersection—(a) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or if none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways that join one another at, or approximately at, right angles or the area within which vehicles traveling on different highways that join at any other angle might come into conflict; (b) the junction of an alley or driveway with a roadway or highway shall not constitute an intersection.
44. Island—a defined area between traffic lanes for control of vehicular movements or for pedestrian refuge. It includes all end protection and approach treatments. Within an intersection area, a median or an outer separation is considered to be an island.
45. Lane Line Markings—white pavement marking lines that delineate the separation of traffic lanes that have the same direction of travel on a roadway.
46. Lane-Use Control Signal—a signal face displaying indications to permit or prohibit the use of specific lanes of a roadway or to indicate the impending prohibition of such use.
47. Legend—see Sign Legend.
48. Logo—a distinctive emblem, symbol or trademark that identifies a product or service.
49. Longitudinal Markings—pavement markings that are generally placed parallel and adjacent to the flow of traffic such as lane lines, centerlines, edge lines, channelizing lines, and others.
50. Major Interchange—an interchange with another freeway or expressway or an interchange with a high-volume multi-lane highway, principal urban arterial, or major rural route where the interchanging traffic is heavy or includes many road users unfamiliar with the area.
51. Major Street—the street normally carrying the higher volume of vehicular traffic.
52. Major Traffic Generator—a traffic generator that attracts:
- a. at least 300,000 visitors per year in the St. Louis or Kansas City metropolitan areas (metro area); or
- b. at least 250,000 visitors per year in an area with a population of at least 5,000 persons (urban area); or
- c. at least 200,000 visitors per year in the area in which the population is less than 5,000 persons (rural area).
53. Median—the area between two roadways of a divided highway measured from edge of travelway to edge of travelway. The median excludes turn lanes. The median width might be different between intersections, interchanges, and at opposite approaches of the same intersection.
54. Minor Interchange—an interchange where traffic is local and very light, such as interchanges with land service access roads. Where the sum of the exit volumes is estimated to be lower than 100 vehicles per day in the design year, the interchange is classified as local.
55. Minor Street—the street normally carrying the lower volume of vehicular traffic.
56. Minor Traffic Generator—a traffic generator that attracts at least 25,000 people per year.
57. Object Marker—a device used to mark obstructions within or adjacent to the roadway.
58. Occupancy Requirement—any restriction that regulates the use of a facility for any period of the day based on a specified number of persons in a vehicle.
59. Occupant—a person driving or riding in a car, truck, bus or other vehicle.
60. Paved—a bituminous surface treatment, mixed bituminous concrete or Portland cement concrete roadway surface that has both a structural (weight bearing) and a sealing purpose for the roadway.
61. Pedestrian—a person afoot, in a wheelchair, on skates or on a skateboard.
62. Pedestrian Facilities—a general term denoting improvements and provisions made to accommodate or encourage walking.
63. Platoon—a group of vehicles or pedestrians traveling together as a group, either voluntarily or involuntarily, because of traffic signal controls, geometrics or other factors.
64. Principal Legend—place names, street names and route numbers placed on guide signs.
65. Public Road—any road or street under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public agency and open to public travel.
66. Raised Pavement Marker—a device with a height of at least 0.4 in. mounted on or in a road surface that is intended to be used as a positioning guide or to supplement or substitute for pavement markings or to mark the position of a fire hydrant.
67. Regulatory Sign—a sign that gives notice to road users of traffic laws or regulations.
68. Retroreflectivity—a property of a surface that allows a large portion of the light
coming from a point source to be returned directly back to a point near its origin.
69. Right of Way [Assignment]—the permitting of vehicles and/or pedestrians to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to other vehicles or pedestrians by the display of sign or signal indications.
70. Road—see Roadway.
71. Roadway—that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel and parking lanes, but exclusive of the sidewalk, berm, or shoulder even though such sidewalk, berm, or shoulder is used by persons riding bicycles or other human-powered vehicles. In the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term roadway as used herein shall refer to any such roadway separately but not to all such roadways collectively.
72. Roadway Network—an arrangement of intersecting roadways.
73. Road User—a vehicle operator, bicyclist or pedestrian within the highway including persons with disabilities.
74. Roundabout Intersection—a circular intersection with yield control of all entering traffic, channelized approaches, and appropriate geometric curvature, so that travel speeds on the circulatory roadway are typically less than 30 mph (50 km/h).
75. Rumble Strip—a series of intermittent, narrow, transverse areas of rough-textured, slightly raised, or depressed road surface that is installed to alert road users to unusual traffic conditions.
76. Rural Highway—a type of roadway normally characterized by lower volumes, higher speeds, fewer turning conflicts, and less conflict with pedestrians.
77. Second Order Signing—signs that are installed in advance of the intersection or interchange where motorists turn to access the highway where first order signing is provided.
78. Shared Roadway—a roadway that is officially designated and marked as a bicycle route, but which is open to motor vehicle travel and upon which no bicycle lane is designated.
79. Shared-Use Path—a bikeway outside the traveled way and physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and either within the highway right-of-way or within an independent alignment. Shared-use paths are also used by pedestrians (including skaters, users of manual and motorized wheelchairs, and joggers) and other authorized motorized and non-motorized users.
80. Sidewalk—that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line of a roadway, and the adjacent property line or on easements of private property that is paved or improved and intended for use by pedestrians.
81. Sign—any traffic control device that is intended to communicate specific information to road users through a word or symbol legend. Signs do not include traffic control signals, pavement markings, delineators, or channelization devices.
82. Sign Assembly—a group of signs located on the same support(s) that supplement one another in conveying information to road users.
83. Sign Illumination—either internal or external lighting that shows similar color by day or night. Street or highway lighting shall not be considered as meeting this definition.
84. Sign Legend—all word messages, logos and symbol designs that are intended to convey specific meanings.
85. Sign Panel—a separate panel or piece of material containing a word or symbol legend that is affixed to the face of a sign.
86. Speed—speed is defined based on the following classifications:
- a. Advisory Speed—a recommended speed for all vehicles operating on a section of highway and based on the highway design, operating characteristics, and conditions.
- b. Average Speed—the summation of the instantaneous or spot-measured speeds at a specific location of vehicles divided by the number of vehicles observed.
- c. Design Speed—a selected speed used to determine the various geometric design features of a roadway.
- d. 85th-Percentile Speed—The speed at or below which 85 percent of the motor vehicles travel.
- e. Operating Speed—a speed at which a typical vehicle or the overall traffic operates. Operating speed might be defined with speed values such as the average, pace, or 85th-percentile speeds.
- f. Pace Speed—the highest speed within a specific range of speeds that represents more vehicles than in any other like range of speed. The range of speeds typically used is 10 mph or 10 km/h.
- g. Posted Speed—the speed limit determined by law and shown on Speed Limit signs.
- h. Statutory Speed—a speed limit established by legislative action that typically is applicable for highways with specified design, functional, jurisdictional and/or location characteristic and is not necessarily shown on Speed Limit signs.
87. Speed Limit—the maximum (or minimum) speed applicable to a section of highway as established by law.
88. Speed Measurement Marking—a white transverse pavement marking placed on the roadway to assist the enforcement of speed regulations.
89. Speed Zone—a section of highway with a speed limit that is established by law but which might be different from a legislatively specified statutory speed limit.
90. Spur—a highway that diverges from its primary parent highway and does not return to it. Spurs serve a specific area or connect to another highway.
91. State Approved Cave—a cave that has compiled with all necessary requirements of the Division of Labor Standards’ Mine Inspection Section and possesses a current certificate of annual inspection furnished and approved by that division.
92. Stop Line—a solid white pavement marking line extending across approach lanes to indicate the point at which a stop is intended or required.
93. Street—see Highway
94. Super Traffic Generator—a traffic generator attracting at least 1,000,000 visitors per year.
95. Temporary Traffic Control Zone—an area of a highway where road user conditions are changed because of a work zone or incident by the use of temporary traffic control devices, flaggers, uniformed law enforcement officers or other authorized personnel.
96. Terminal Point-a specific intersection within a control city or point from which distances are calculated.
97. Third Order Signing—signs that are installed in advance of the intersection or interchange where motorists turn to access the highway where second order signing is provided.
98. Traffic—pedestrians, bicyclists, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars and other conveyances either singularly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel.
99. Traffic Control Device—a sign, signal, marking, or other device used to regulate, warn, or guide traffic, placed on, over, or adjacent to a street, highway, pedestrian facility or shared-use path by authority of a public agency having jurisdiction.
100. Traffic Control Signal (Traffic Signal)—any highway traffic signal by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed.
101. Traffic Generator—A publicly or privately owned scenic, historical, educational, cultural or recreational site or a natural wonder (state approved cave) which generates a large volume of traffic due to public visitors to the site each year.
102. Train—one or more locomotives coupled, with or without cars, that operates on rails or tracks and to which all other traffic must yield the right-of-way by law at highway-rail grade crossings.
103. Transverse Markings—pavement markings that are generally placed perpendicular and across the flow of traffic such as shoulder markings, word and symbol markings, stop lines, crosswalk lines, speed measurement markings, parking space markings and others.
104. Traveled Way—the portion of the roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of the shoulders, berms, sidewalks and parking lanes.
105. Urban Street—a type of street normally characterized by relatively low speeds, wide ranges of traffic volumes, narrower lanes, frequent intersections and driveways, significant pedestrian traffic and more businesses and houses.
106. Vehicle—every device in, upon, or by which any person or property can be transported or drawn upon a highway, except trains and light rail transit operating in exclusive or semi-exclusive alignments. Light rail transit operating in a mixed-use alignment, to which other traffic is not required to yield the right of way by law, is a vehicle.
107. Warning Sign—a sign that gives notice to road users of a situation that might not be readily apparent.
108. Warrant—a warrant describes threshold conditions to the engineer in evaluating the potential safety and operational benefits of traffic control devices and is based upon average or normal conditions. Warrants are not a substitute for engineering judgment. The fact that a warrant for a particular traffic control device is met is not conclusive justification for the installation of the device.
109. Wrong-Way Arrow—a slender, elongated, white pavement marking arrow placed upstream from the ramp terminus to indicate the correct direction of traffic flow. Wrong-way arrows are intended primarily to warn wrong-way road users that they are going in the wrong direction.
903.19.14 Abbreviations Used on Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD Section 1A.14)
Standard. When the word messages shown in Table 903.19.14.1 need to be abbreviated in connection with traffic control devices, the abbreviations shown in Table 903.19.14.1 shall be used.
Guidance. The abbreviations for the words listed in Table 903.19.14.2 should not be used in connection with traffic control devices unless the prompt word shown in Table 903.19.14.2 either precedes or follows the abbreviation.
Standard. The abbreviations shown in Table 903.19.14.3 shall not be used in connection with traffic control devices because of their potential to be misinterpreted by travelers.
Guidance. Where multiple abbreviations are permitted in Tables 903.19.14.1 or 903.19.14.2, the same abbreviation should be used throughout a single jurisdiction.
Table 903.19.14.1 Acceptable Abbreviations
|Word Message||Standard Abbreviation|
|Afternoon / Evening||PM|
|Compressed Natural Gas||CNG|
|Crossing (other than highway-rail)|
|High Occupancy Vehicle||HOV|
|Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Pavement Marking||RXR|
|Inherently Low Emission Vehicle||ILEV|
|Junction / Intersection||JCT|
|Liquid Propane Gas||LP-GAS|
|Miles Per Hour||MPH|
|Morning / Late Night||AM|
|Tires With Lugs||LUGS|
|Tons of Weight||T|
|US Numbered Route||US|
Table 903.19.14.2 Abbreviations that are Acceptable Only with a Prompt Word
|*These prompt words should precede the abbreviation|
Table 903.19.14.3 Unacceptable Abbreviations
|Abbreviation||Intended Word||Common Misinterpretation|