Category:1036 Reinforcing Steel for Concrete
|Approved and Pre-Qualified List|
|Qualified Epoxy Powders|
|Reinforcing Steel for Concrete|
This article establishes procedures for inspecting and testing reinforcing steel for use in Portland cement concrete. Refer to Sec 1036 for MoDOT’s specifications.
- 1 1036.1 Procedures
- 2 1036.2 Exceptions, Mill Test Reports, Sampling and Record Keeping
- 3 1036.3 Sample Record
- 4 1036.4 Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel
- 5 1036.5 Certification
- 6 1036.6 Repairing Bars
- 7 1036.7 Laboratory Testing for Sec 1036
- 7.1 1036.7.1 Procedure
- 7.2 =1036.7.1.2 Rail-Steel Deformed Bars
- 7.3 1036.7.3 Sample Record
The methods of inspecting and accepting reinforcing steel are described in the following paragraphs. Steel is accepted on the basis of the PAL program. The manufacturer of the steel must be on the current Pre-Acceptance List.
1036.1.1 Inspection at a Construction Jobsite
Confirm that the steel is tagged with a PAL I.D. number. Confirm that the SiteManager record for the steel is representative of the material at the jobsite. When directed by Construction and Materials, the characteristics of the coating of coated steel may be determined in the field and a sample for flexibility of coating or for characteristics of uncoated steel may be obtained for submission to the Laboratory as indicated in 1036.2.1 Reinforcing Steel, Dowel Bars, Mechanical Bar Splices and Cold Drawn Wire and Welded Wire Fabric and 1036.4.2.2 Field Inspection. No Mill Test Report is required at a construction jobsite. When the characteristics of the material are suspect and a sample is obtained and submitted to the Laboratory for testing, Construction and Materials should be notified. Construction and Materials will obtain a mill test report from the shipper if necessary.
1036.1.2 Inspection at a Fabricator
A fabricator is any entity that incorporates steel into a product used for highway construction.
1036.1.2.1 Precast Plants and Similar Facilities
Uncoated and Epoxy coated steel are both inspected as follows. Confirm that the fabricator has obtained a PAL I.D. number for the steel. Confirm that the SiteManager record for the steel is representative of the material held by the fabricator. When directed by Construction and Materials, or when the characteristics of the material are suspect, a sample may be obtained as indicated in 1036.2.1 Reinforcing Steel, Dowel Bars, Mechanical Bar Splices and Cold Drawn Wire and Welded Wire Fabric. The fabricator should have a Mill Test Report on file for all steel given a PAL I.D. Number. The fabricator's filing process should clearly connect the PAL I.D., the steel, and the documentation. Typically this is done with the heat number, but the fabricator may use any rational process. If the fabricator has non-PAL steel for non-MoDOT work, the material must be clearly marked or segregated.
1036.1.2.2 Epoxy Coating Plants
Typically a coating plant does not obtain a PAL I.D. for steel until it has been coated and is ready to ship to a jobsite. If the coated steel will be shipped to another fabricator, no PAL I.D. is required. When directed by Construction and Materials, or when the characteristics of the material are suspect, a sample of steel may be obtained as indicated in 1036.2.1 Reinforcing Steel, Dowel Bars, Mechanical Bar Splices and Cold Drawn Wire and Welded Wire Fabric. The fabricator should have a Mill Test Report on file for all steel destined for MoDOT work. The fabricator's filing process should clearly connect the steel and the associated documentation. Typically this is done with the heat number but the fabricator may use any rational process. If the fabricator has non-PAL steel for non-MoDOT work, the material must be clearly marked or segregated.
Uncoated steel is inspected as follows: Routine sampling and testing of uncoated steel at an epoxy coating plant is for the purpose of quality assurance of the steel manufacturer. Samples are typically taken from a coating plant when the coater is more convenient than the steel mill.
Coated steel is inspected as follows: The characteristics and the properties of the coating are to be determined while at the fabricator as indicated in 1036.4.2.2 Field Inspection. The fabricator's quality control process and records are to be reviewed.
1036.1.3 Inspection at a Mill
Typically a steel mill does not obtain a PAL I.D. for any steel. Only when the mill ships steel directly to a MoDOT jobsite is a PAL I.D. required. When directed by Construction and Materials, or when the characteristics of the material are suspect, a sample of steel may be obtained as indicated in 1036.2.1 Reinforcing Steel, Dowel Bars, Mechanical Bar Splices and Cold Drawn Wire and Welded Wire Fabric. The mill should have a Mill Test Report on file for all steel destined for MoDOT work. If the mill produces or has non-PAL steel for non-MoDOT work, the material must be clearly marked or segregated.
Review the quality control records to determine whether failed material is produced and its disposition. Check for trends in the test results as would indicate whether the mill is capable of consistent production that is reasonably within the specification ranges. Confirm that the mill is capable of matching documentation with output from production to shipment.
1036.2 Exceptions, Mill Test Reports, Sampling and Record Keeping
Material must be inspected as the type or grade for which it is manufactured. If the steel does not meet the requirements of the specification to which it is manufactured, it may not be substituted for the next lower class. For instance, Grade 60 (420) steel failing to meet Grade 60 (420) requirements is not to be substituted for use as Grade 40 (300).
ASTM A706 steel may be substituted for Grade 40 (300) or Grade 60 (420) provided that the mill certifications indicate that the A706 steel meets all requirements of the AASHTO M31, M42 or M53. Of specific concern is that the tensile strength meets the minimum required. Notify Construction and Materials if the substitution is made on PAL material.
Welded wire fabric for concrete pavement shall be furnished in mats of the size and design shown on the plans. It will be permissible to furnish longitudinally hinged wire fabric for sheets of a required width of 8 ft. (2400 mm) or greater. The hinge shall be made by looping the transverse wires around a longitudinal wire, and shall be capable of developing the full strength of the transverse wire. The hinge shall be located within one foot (300 mm) of the center of the width of the sheet. All steel wire fabric shall be free from dirt, paint, oil, grease, thick rust and other foreign substances. Thin powdery rust need not be removed.
A mill test report showing complete physical tests is required for all reinforcing steel. The mill test report shall be retained by the shipper of the steel and a copy made available to the inspector upon request. The mill test report for steel bars shall also show the results of complete chemical tests. The mill test report shall be compared against the requirements of the proper AASHTO Specification to insure contract compliance.
1036.2.1 Reinforcing Steel, Dowel Bars, Mechanical Bar Splices and Cold Drawn Wire and Welded Wire Fabric
When a sample is requested, the steel shall be sampled, submitted to the Laboratory for testing with a copy of the mill test report except as indicated (above), and documented through SiteManager. Samples shall consist of the following:
1036.2.1.1 Reinforcing Steel, Dowel Bars, Mechanical Bar Splices and Cold Drawn Wire
When requested, a sample of reinforcing steel representing a heat, size or grade; or cold drawn wire shall consist of six pieces for the steel properties. For uncoated reinforcing steel, when possible, three bars, one each from three bundles will be sampled, with two pieces cut from each uncoated bar. The pieces should be labeled as 1A and 1B from the first bar, 2A and 2B from the second bar, and 3A and 3B from the third bar. Epoxy coating properties (when required) shall be field tested. Samples submitted to the laboratory for epoxy coating shall consist of three pieces cut from three bars, with each bar from a different bundle, when possible. Mechanical bar splice samples shall have 12 ± 1 in. (300±20 mm) of reinforcing steel extending from each end of the splice. Samples of cold drawn steel wire and reinforcing steel bars shall be of the length shown for the appropriate bar size and test shown in the following table.
|Bar Size||Bend Test||Tension Test|
|Reinforcing Steel and Wire|
|#11 Bar and Smaller (#36)||28 in. ± 2in. 1 (680 ± 50 mm)||28 ± 2 in. (680± 50 mm)|
|#14 and #18 Bar (#43 and #57)||36 in. ± 2 in. 1 (1170 ± 50 mm) 2||28 ± 2 in.(680± 50 mm)|
|1 in. and Smaller (25 mm)||28 in. ± 2 in. (680 ± 50 mm)||18 in. to 29 in. (450to700mm)|
|1 ¼ in. (32 mm) and Larger||36 in. ± 2 in. (900 ± 50 mm)||18 in. to 29 in. (450 to 700mm)|
|1 Use the same length for flexibility of epoxy coating samples.|
|2 When required by specifications.|
1036.2.1.2 Welded Wire Fabric
When requested, wire to be sampled for Laboratory testing is to be field measured for size prior to sampling. Each wire across the width of fabric is to be measured. The manufacturer may use over-sized wire in the fabrication of welded wire fabric, but no under-sized wire. The size differential shall not exceed one "W" size increment on sizes W8 and smaller and two "W" size increments on sizes larger than W8. "W" sizes referred to are those shown in AASHTO M 32. In all cases where over-sizing exists, the fabric shall be identified and used as that originally ordered or offered for use. Field measurements should be listed in the remarks associated with the Basic Sample Data tab in SiteManager when submitting the sample. A sample of welded wire fabric shall consist of one piece representing the full width of the fabric and not less than 24 in. (600 mm) long, measured in the direction of the longitudinal wires. It will be permissible to cut a sample into sections approximately 3 ft. (900 mm) wide, for convenience in shipping to the Laboratory. When samples are to be reduced into such sections, the cuts should be made in transverse wires approximately at the midpoint between the two adjacent longitudinal wires.
A producer may fabricate welded wire fabric, from cold drawn wire, at their facility for their own consumption. For example, a reinforced concrete pipe producer fabricates welded wire fabric, from cold drawn wire, for use in a reinforced concrete pipe. The inspector shall be responsible for sampling the welded wire fabric to ensure that the producer’s fabrication process does not affect the wire’s compliance. Samples shall be taken and submitted to the Laboratory for testing as described in 1036.2.1.2 Welded Wire Fabric. The inspector shall also verify that the wire was obtained from an approved PAL source. Non-compliance of the fabricated welded wire fabric will not be considered a PAL strike, but may affect the producer’s qualification to supply their product to MoDOT.
When reporting welded wire fabric in SiteManager, the material code corresponding to the larger of the two wire sizes shall be chosen. The details of the welded wire fabric, including both wire sizes and the wire spacing (if known), shall be recorded in the Remarks of the sample record. A different sample ID shall be given for each different configuration of welded wire fabric, even if the larger wire size is the same. This reporting procedure shall be used at all times; when taking and reporting samples for Laboratory testing and when reporting welded wire fabric to a contract.
1036.3 Sample Record
If Laboratory samples are obtained, the Laboratory will record the test results in SiteManager. The Basic and Additional Sample Data tabs shall show all pertinent information regarding the material including heat number. Appropriate remarks, as described in 106.9 Reporting Test Results, are to be included to clarify conditions of acceptance or rejection.
Plant Inspection Record. Information regarding inspection of a mill will be recorded in SiteManager as a sample record with the code 0106XXPAL and as indicated in 106.1.1 Pre-Acceptance Lists.
1036.4 Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel
This article establishes procedures for inspecting epoxy coated reinforcing steel for use in Portland cement concrete. . Refer to Sec 1036.5 for MoDOT’s specifications.
Epoxy coated reinforcing steel should only be accepted if coated by one of the qualified coating plants designated on PAL. A PAL epoxy coating plant should be inspected once a month when the plant is providing material for MoDOT work. At the time of inspection of the plant the inspector should confirm that the plant is producing to meet MoDOT specifications however, it is not necessary that the production be specifically for MoDOT work if the process used is typical of that employed for MoDOT work.
New epoxy coating plants will be added to PAL by Construction and Materials on the basis of a standard PAL application except that the coating material to be used must be indicated and must be an approved material. Epoxy coating material shall be approved based on the compliance of test results with AASHTO M284/M284M-2. Tests on epoxy coating material shall be performed by an acceptable agency. A report summarizing the results of all tests and bearing the signature of the testing laboratory shall be submitted to Construction and Materials for review, along with completed copies of GS-13 Form 1 and GS-13 Form 4. The manufacturer will also provide at least one compatible field patching material.
(a) Magnetic gauge, reading range 0-40 mils (0-1000 μm).
(b) Holiday detector, Tinker and Rasor Model M/1 or equivalent
(c) File or knife to remove coating for holiday detector connections
(d) Pictorial surface preparation standard.
1036.4.2.1 Plant Inspection
Uncoated steel should be from a PAL source. Surface preparation should be checked to insure compliance with SSPC-SP10, near white finish. Periodic checks should be made to insure the temperature recommendations of the epoxy powder manufacturer are being followed and the coating is properly cured. The epoxy powder must be on the Qualified Epoxy Powders list.
1036.4.2.1.1 Coating Film Thickness
Coating film thickness may be checked with a magnetic gauge as soon as the bars have cooled to handling temperature. Readings should be taken on a representative number of bars from the total production. The inspector may vary the number to be tested depending upon plant production and difficulties encountered in the coating process. Two thickness readings should be taken on each side of the bar at three locations to give twelve readings per bar. The average of these readings should be recorded as the coating thickness on the bar tested. The inspector should try to use the smooth area near bar markings whenever possible and hold the gauge firmly on the bar to insure accurate readings. Unusually high or low readings should be checked again and not recorded if gauge error due to surface irregularities is suspected. Readings should be recorded to the nearest 0.1 mil (2.5 μm) and reported to the nearest whole mil (μm). Thickness determinations on all bars of a given size should be averaged to give the reported thickness for an inspected lot. An inspected lot may be considered as the amount of steel available for inspection at the time an inspection is performed.
Continuity of coating may be checked on the same bars used for coating thickness determinations. Attach the lead wire of the holiday detector to any location on the bar where the coating has been removed down to bare metal. Pass the wet sponge attached to the inspection lead of the detector over the coated surface. Make at least one pass in each direction along the length of the bar to insure contact on both sides of bars with sharp or rough deformations. Record the number of holidays per bar length. Divide the total per bar by its length in feet (m) to determine compliance with the maximum allowable of one per foot (3 per m). If the coater has an in-line holiday detector, the coated steel should be checked periodically with a portable detector to insure its accuracy.
Flexibility of coating tests should be performed as part of a plant inspection.
1036.4.2.1.4 Plant Inspection Record
When epoxy coated reinforcing steel is inspected at the coating plant, SiteManager shall be used to document the inspection. The inspector is to show complete information related to the inspection. A material code, 0106XXPAL, is provided to track plant inspections.
In addition to the sample record documenting the plant inspection, a sample record shall be created for each size and grade of epoxy coated reinforcing steel using the corresponding material code. The record should contain test SAA006CD – Epoxy Coated Steel Tests, which will be used to record the following:
(a) Coating thickness average of all bars of each size rounded to nearest whole mil (μm).
(b) Holiday test results, maximum of one per ft. (3 per m).
(c) Brand of coating material.
(d) If there are any exceptions in the test SAA006CD or a need for any other additional remarks, they should be recorded in the Free Form Test.
1036.4.2.2 Field Inspection
The procedures described in the preceding paragraphs for coating film thickness and continuity tests apply also to field inspection. When directed to sample at a jobsite, select three bundles at random of each bar size from each load. If individual loads cannot be distinguished, every fourth bundle of each size may be selected. Take three bars from each bundle and perform thickness and holiday tests. If results are not within specification limits, double the number of sample bars should be taken. If ten percent or more of the bars tested fail to meet specification requirements, Construction and Materials should be notified of the circumstances of the failure. A quick survey of the entire lot consisting of random checks with the magnetic gauge and visual examination of the coating will usually insure the material selected is representative. Once field tests have determined compliance with the holiday and coating thickness requirements, samples for steel properties and flexibility of coating should be taken.
Field Inspection Record. Test results obtained by a jobsite inspection, in addition to any appropriate remarks, will be recorded in a sample record specific to the material sampled with a reference to the original PAL I.D. assigned to the material by using the Link To function. If no test results are obtained, remarks may be posted to the Remarks or Disposition Remarks of the PAL I.D. record for the material.
Regardless of where the epoxy coated steel is sampled and tested, the shipper should have available the following:
(a) Steel manufacturer's certified mill test report showing complete chemical and physical test results.
(b) Epoxy powder manufacturer's certification that the materials supplied the coating applicator conforms to the contract.
(c) Coating applicator's certification certifying that all materials used, the preparation of the bars, coating and curing were done in accordance with the contract and that no bar contains more than 1 holidays per ft. (3 per m).
(d) Coating applicator's specific test results of tests for coating thickness and flexibility of coating.
Typical certifications should be examined for compliance as part of a plant inspection. Method of filing and ability to track documentation of a particular shipment shall be to the satisfaction of the inspector. It is acceptable for a shipper to obtain the documentation listed above (from the manufacturer) at the time it is requested by the inspector if it is obtained in a timely fashion and can reasonably be tracked to the material shipped. Certification is not required at the jobsite.
1036.6 Repairing Bars
Patching should be performed in accordance with the coating manufacturer’s instructions and as described in Sec 710.3.3. It is not intended that patching material be used to cover extensive areas left uncoated during the initial coating process. Patching should be done sparingly on sheared or cut ends and damaged areas.
1036.7 Laboratory Testing for Sec 1036
Samples consist of uncoated and epoxy coated deformed bars, plain steel for fabric reinforcement. Original test results and calculations shall be reported through SiteManager.
1036.7.1.1 Billet-Steel Deformed Bars
Billet-steel deformed bars shall consist of grade 300 mPa, 420mPa, or 520 mPa (Grade 40, 60 or 75) steel.
1036.7.1.1.1 Samples of uncoated billet-steel deformed bars shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO M31. Tests consist of tensile properties, bending properties, weight (mass) variation, and measurements of deformations.
1036.7.1.1.2 Samples of epoxy coated billet-steel deformed bars, when submitted for steel properties, shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO M31 except that the weight (mass) variation and measurement of deformations shall not apply. The flexibility of coating test shall be performed in accordance with Specification Sec 1036.3.9.
=1036.7.1.2 Rail-Steel Deformed Bars
Rail-steel deformed bars shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO M42. Tests consist of tensile properties, bending properties, weight (mass) variation, and measurements of deformations.
1036.7.2.3 Axle-Steel Deformed Bars
Axle-steel deformed bars shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO M53. Tests consist of tensile properties, bending properties, weight [mass] variation, and measurements of deformations.
1036.7.2.4 Spiral Reinforcement
Spiral reinforcement shall conform either to the requirements for reinforcing steel bar, except that it may be plain or deformed; or it shall be cold drawn steel wire conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M32. Tests for plain steel bars are the same as for deformed bars except the requirements for deformations are not applicable. Tests for cold drawn steel wire consist of tensile properties, bending properties, and wire diameter variations.
1036.7.2.5 Welded Wire Fabric
Welded wire fabric shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO M55. Tests consist of tensile properties, bending properties, wire diameter variations, and weld shear tests, if specified.
The wire diameter variations shall conform to the tolerances prescribed for the wire before fabrication in AASHTO M32 except that the manufacturer may use oversized wire in the fabrication of welded wire fabric, but not undersized wire. The size differential shall not exceed one "W" size increment on sizes W8 and smaller and two "W" size increments on sizes larger than W8. Sizes referred to are those shown in AASHTO M32. In all cases where oversizing exists, the fabric shall be identified and used as that originally ordered or offered for use.
1036.7.2.6 Samples Not Within Specifications
If a reinforcing steel sample is not within specifications on the initial sample and further testing is desired, resampling and testing should be done in accordance with the applicable specification for which the steel is being furnished. If no retesting procedures are indicated, random re-samples are to be double that initially taken from each lot sampled, and all resamples must comply with the specifications.
1036.7.3 Sample Record
The sample record shall be completed in SiteManager, as described in Automation Sec 3510, and shall indicate acceptance, qualified acceptance, or rejection. Appropriate remarks, as described in Reporting Test Results, are to be included in the remarks to clarify conditions of acceptance or rejection. Test results shall be reported on the appropriate templates under the Tests tab.
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