Category:700 STRUCTURES AND HYDRAULICS
A bridge is a structure spanning a minimum of 20 feet grade separation or crossing water. There are about 10,000 bridges in Missouri's state highway system. Bridges are described as simple or continuous and according to structure type and material.
Once the need concerning a bridge structure is identified in a project then a core team is established, the scope of the project is developed, a bridge survey is submitted and preliminary design begins. The bridge need could involve rehabilitating or widening an existing structure or building a new structure or retaining wall. There is no perfect bridge type for all situations. With practical design, engineers are expected and encouraged to consider and evaluate all potential solutions and project factors that ultimately impact the cost of the structure. However, any variations to the information in this guide should be discussed in advance with the appropriate Structural Liaison Engineer or Structural Project Manager.
|Key Points - Hydraulics|
As used in the highway environment, hydraulics is that branch of engineering concerned with the flow of water. Hydraulics includes the gutters, ditches, and storm sewer systems that remove rainfall runoff from a highway and also includes the flow in a waterway traversed by a highway consisting of open channels, culverts and bridges. Hydraulic design frequency and design criteria are based on federal and state laws and regulations, safe operation of the highway facility, and impact to adjacent property owners. Hydraulic structures are typically designed for high flow events, although specific projects may also have low flow criteria.
- 1 700.2 General Construction Inspection for Division 700
- 1.1 700.2.1 Preparation For Inspection
- 1.2 700.2.2 Inspector's Diary
- 1.3 700.2.3 Staking Structures
- 1.4 700.2.4 Vertical Clearance
700.2 General Construction Inspection for Division 700
This section is intended as a guide to adequate and uniform administration of inspection during construction of structures. The specialized structures are not discussed. Sound engineering judgment must be applied to those situations which occur so seldom that it is impractical to consider them in this manual.
Structures include: bridges built of steel, concrete or a combination of both; bridges or trestles built of timber; concrete retaining walls, concrete crib-type retaining walls, or metal bintype retaining walls, single to multiple box culverts of concrete, storm drains, and sewers, and structural plate pipe and structural plate pipe-arch culverts.
Inspection work on structures is a great responsibility. The public safety is often at stake. Substandard construction will often lead to excessive maintenance costs.
Specifications, plans, and special provisions contain many details which the engineer must check. Such provisions govern if they should conflict with instructions in this manual since the manual only supplements design and contract details in a general way.
700.2.1 Preparation For Inspection
A good inspector will study plans, specifications and special provisions in great detail. If there are questions or an error has been made, immediately consult the resident engineer. The inspector should learn what materials will be used, what samples must be taken, and what on-site tests and measurements must be made. Prepare to answer questions relating to structural plans and specifications at the preconstruction conference. Obtain supplies and equipment needed for the job and check each item carefully to be sure it is in proper working order.
The inspector should carefully examine the site and compare the information on the plans with site conditions. Spot check for any errors. If the structure is a bridge, study physical features that may affect the work and its progress and check seasonal conditions, high water levels, or other conditions that could affect the order in which operations might be performed. For a culvert, the inspector should determine if the site will be properly drained to prevent flooding or damage to the structure during construction.
For all structures, particularly in urban work, the inspector should note the position of all utilities. Check all utility agreements and right-of-way plans to see if utility adjustments clear construction. The district office should be notified of any omission to avoid construction delays.
The inspector should promptly set up the necessary field books so that completed work can be measured and entries made promptly in the proper book or on forms furnished for this purpose.
Following is a list of equipment needed for typical structure inspection. Additional items necessary for project management are found in other sections of the manual.
- l. All plans, specifications, special provisions, right of way plans and agreements, and utility data that apply to the structure.
- 2. Survey equipment appropriate to the job.
- 3. One or more 100 ft. steel tapes, extra plumb bobs, and other equipment necessary for staking the structure.
- 4. 50 ft. steel tape in case.
- 5. 6 ft. folding rule.
- 6. Bound field books for field notes and diaries.
- 7. Set of current standard drawings applicable to the contract.
- 8. All necessary standard forms for use on the structure.
- 9. Equipment for necessary field tests:
- a. Compaction test equipment where required.
- b. Slump cones and tamping rods.
- c. Concrete cylinder molds.
- d. Air meters for air-entrained concrete.
- e. Compressive test machine and capping set.
700.2.2 Inspector's Diary
Structure inspectors should keep a daily diary covering all operations. The amount of information to be kept is at the discretion of the resident engineer who must decide how much of the detailed record will be kept in his own diary. The resident engineer has the ultimate responsibility for maintaining a complete written history of the project, even though delegating portions of the task to others.
On a large bridge, such as a major stream crossing, a well organized inspection team is needed. One or more inspectors should be assigned to each major work phase under general supervision of a chief inspector. Typical major work phases are pile driving, substructure inspection, falsework and grades, superstructure forming, painting, slab inspection, and related work. Many phases may be in progress at the same time. The inspectors assigned to any phase will be the best qualified to prepare a detailed record of events concerning their area of responsibility. Their diary should contain considerable detail such as records of all instructions to the contractor's representative, a detailed description of active work in their area of responsibility, and a complete record of any unusual occurrences on the job, such as methods which might affect job quality, unusual storms, abnormally high water, a list of all equipment and manpower, etc. The diary is a history. It should not be confused with field data books for items such as grades, moisture tests, slump, etc., nor should it duplicate this data. Keep entries neat and systematic.
700.2.3 Staking Structures
Recommended procedures for staking structures are outlined in Construction Surveying - Staking Structures. The responsible Department personnel shall satisfy themselves by independent check that staking is complete and accurate. Sometimes the bridge survey will have been made so far in advance of construction that radical changes have occurred in stream meander and flow lines. Large changes could affect the position of the bridge relative to the stream bed and nullify information shown on the plans. During staking this should be checked by taking a profile across the stream along the roadway centerline and a stream bed profile approximately 300 feet up and downstream. If large changes are found in either of the above, it may be necessary to shift the structure or revise footing elevations. The data should be sent to the district office for review and for transmittal to the Bridge Division if a design review appears warranted. Once staking is complete and checked, the resident engineer or the chief inspector should review the staking in detail with the contractor's authorized representative to be sure she/he knows the location and purpose of each stake.
700.2.3.2 Control Points
"Control points" establishing centerline and elevations are responsibilities of MoDOT. Such points should be established by staking methods compatible with instructions in Construction Surveying.
Contractor's forces are responsible for establishing such items as pile position, placing of footing forms and column forms, etc. Once they have done this using control points established by project forces, their request for an independent check should be granted.
As work progresses, it may be necessary to shift control points closer to the work in progress. Typically such points are established on previously completed concrete work such as top of footings or centerline of caps.
Typical items to be checked after the contractor has established their positions are piles, footings, columns, caps, anchor bolt wells, and bearing devices.
The division of responsibility under which the engineer is responsible for control points (always set on permanently fixed objects) and the contractor for intermediate points (on forms or temporary objects) is established by Sec 105.8 of the Standard Specifications.
700.2.4 Vertical Clearance
The legal vehicle height in the state of Missouri ranges from 13 ft. 6 in. to 15 ft. 0 in. Any loads over the legal height limit require a permit.
In order to issue permits for over-height loads, it is important that the department maintain current, accurate records of vertical clearances over and under state marked routes.
District personnel shall be responsible for measuring vertical clearances on all bridges over state routes, other roadways and railroads. This includes measuring clearances on new bridges that are open to traffic and anytime the clearance changes due to construction or maintenance project. All measurements shall be taken on the roadway surfaces only and not on the shoulders, even though the minimum clearance may be less on the shoulders. Measurement shall be made from the bottom of the lowest obstruction (beam, concrete, light fixture, rivet or bolt head, through truss member, etc.) This clearance shall be measured and rounded down to the nearest inch and reported to Bridge Maintenance.
When placing new steel girders over existing roadways or significantly lowering an existing clearance such as 6 in. overlay, the RE's should advise Bridge Maintenance by Email or letter of the temporary change in clearances. The final vertical clearance should be measured in the field and reported when the project is completed.
The State Bridge Maintenance Engineer is responsible for keeping a master records of vertical clearance measurements. They furnish this information to the people who issue overdimension permits.
Vertical clearance shall be measured on every project. This includes rehabilitation and resurfacing work as well as new construction. Minimum vertical clearance measurements for bridges over state routes and city or county streets shall be taken and reported to the District Construction and Materials Engineer.
When the rehabilitation or new construction involves a structure over a railroad not only should the vertical clearance be taken, but the horizontal clearances to the nearest obstacle should be taken, also. This horizontal measurement should be taken from a point half way between the two rails of the railroad track to the nearest obstacle. (See Bridge Standard Details - Horizontal and Vertical Clearance for more information on measurement). If multiple tracks are located under a structure additional measurements should be taken. This information is not only to be sent to the State Bridge Maintenance Engineer and the Permits Section but should also be sent to the Railroad Liaison Engineer located in Multimodal Operations located in General Headquarters of MoDOT. They will in turn submit the information to the respective railroad company for their information.
When measuring vertical clearance, the following should be kept in mind:
1. One bridge over several routes will require several vertical clearance measurements. Over divided highways, a vertical clearance for each direction shall be measured and reported.
2a. All measurements for roadways are to be taken on the roadway surfaces only - not on the shoulders. Report actual vertical clearance if 18 ft. or less. If greater than 18 ft., show 18 ft. + on the report.
2b. All measurements for railroads are to be taken above the top of the rails and for a width of 12 ft., centered on the rails. Report actual vertical clearance of 23 ft. or less. If greater than 23 ft., show 23 ft. + on the report.
3. Measurements shall be made from the bottom of the lowest obstruction.
4. Measurement information shall include structure identification number, route, and county. Also identify the route over which the structure spans. When several roadways are involved, identify the roadway with the proper clearances. When more than one railroad track is uninvolved, identify each work track with the proper clearance. For clarity, a sketch of the structure with measurements shown can be used.
5. Horizontal clearances are measured from the center of the track to the nearest lateral obstruction (usually the closest pier) . The minimum clearances are normally shown on the plans and this must be maintained upon completion of the project. The plans should indicate a minimum horizontal clearance for temporary construction. If this information is not indicated on the plans, contact the Railroad Liaison Engineer in Multimodal Operation immediately.
It is important that this information be submitted before the obstructed road is opened to traffic, or within 24 hours of completion if the route was never closed to traffic.
700.2.4.4 Temporary Restrictions
Temporary vertical clearances and lane width restrictions due to construction work are to be reported to the District Maintenance and Traffic Engineer (District Maintenance Engineer). Submit this information prior to the obstruction being put in place. As soon as restrictions are removed notify the operations engineer in charge of maintenance who will advise the Permits - Overweight/Overdimension section.