Difference between revisions of "Category:749 Hydrologic Analysis"
m (→749.6.1.4 Limitations of Equations: minor clarification) |
m (→749.5.4 Rainfall Intensity: Per BR, updated the Central District IDF curve) |
||
(14 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown) | |||
Line 1: | Line 1: | ||
− | + | =749.1 General= | |
+ | |||
Hydrology is that branch of the applied earth sciences which deals with the occurrence and distribution of surface and ground waters. Highway drainage design is concerned with the surface water hydrology of small watersheds. In particular, the peak rate of runoff and/or the runoff hydrograph produced by flood events are of interest in analysis of highway drainage problems. Peak runoff rates are a parameter of design and their estimation is a prerequisite to hydraulic computations. Flood hydrographs are a necessary parameter of stormwater detention basin design, which can be used to reduce peak runoff rates for design of certain highway drainage structures. | Hydrology is that branch of the applied earth sciences which deals with the occurrence and distribution of surface and ground waters. Highway drainage design is concerned with the surface water hydrology of small watersheds. In particular, the peak rate of runoff and/or the runoff hydrograph produced by flood events are of interest in analysis of highway drainage problems. Peak runoff rates are a parameter of design and their estimation is a prerequisite to hydraulic computations. Flood hydrographs are a necessary parameter of stormwater detention basin design, which can be used to reduce peak runoff rates for design of certain highway drainage structures. | ||
Line 11: | Line 12: | ||
Criteria for determination of the design flood frequency and methods for computing peak rates of runoff and runoff hydrographs are presented in this article. | Criteria for determination of the design flood frequency and methods for computing peak rates of runoff and runoff hydrographs are presented in this article. | ||
− | + | =749.2 Design Frequency and Return Period= | |
+ | |||
The frequency of occurrence or return period of an event may be defined as the average period of time between events equal to or greater than a given magnitude. The annual probability of occurrence of an event is equal to the reciprocal of the event's return period. For example, a flood with a return period of 100 years has a 1% chance of occurring in any year; whereas a flood with a return period of 25 years has a 4% chance of occurring in any year. | The frequency of occurrence or return period of an event may be defined as the average period of time between events equal to or greater than a given magnitude. The annual probability of occurrence of an event is equal to the reciprocal of the event's return period. For example, a flood with a return period of 100 years has a 1% chance of occurring in any year; whereas a flood with a return period of 25 years has a 4% chance of occurring in any year. | ||
− | + | ==749.2.1 Design Frequency Criteria== | |
− | The return period used as a criterion of design is known as the design frequency. The design frequency to be used in the design of drainage structures is a function of roadway type (major | + | The return period used as a criterion of design is known as the design frequency. The design frequency to be used in the design of drainage structures is a function of roadway type (major or minor), traffic volume and type of drainage facility. |
+ | |||
+ | ===749.2.1.1 Crossroad Structures=== | ||
+ | The design flood magnitude, [[:Category:748 Hydraulics and Drainage|design frequencies]] and corresponding water surface elevation(s) shall be included on the project plans for all crossroad structures. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===749.2.1.2 Roadside Ditches and Culverts=== | ||
+ | The design frequency for roadside drainage ditches should be selected based on the function served. Ditches with a primary function of removal of water from the pavement should be based on the [[640.1 Pavement Drainage#640.1.2.1 Design Frequency|design frequency of the pavement drainage]]. Ditches with a primary function of carrying water to or from a crossroad structure should be based on the [[748.2 Roadway Design Criteria#748.2.2 Crossroad Structure Frequency Criteria (Roadway Design Frequency)|design frequency of the crossroad structure]]. | ||
+ | |||
+ | Culverts not considered crossroad structures should be designed to the same frequency as the ditch. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===749.2.1.3 Pavement Drainage=== | ||
+ | See [[640.1 Pavement Drainage#640.1.2.1 Design Frequency|EPG 640.1.2.1 Design Frequency]]. | ||
− | + | ===749.2.1.4 Median Drainage=== | |
+ | See [[640.2 Median Drainage#640.2.3 Design Discharge|EPG 640.2.3 Design Discharge]]. | ||
− | + | ==749.2.2 Base Flood== | |
− | The base flood is defined as the 100-year flood or the flood with a 1% chance of being exceeded in any given year. | + | The base flood is defined as the 100-year flood or the flood with a 1% chance of being exceeded in any given year. |
After sizing a drainage facility using the [[:Category:748 Hydraulics and Drainage|design flood criteria]], the ability of the proposed facility to pass the base (100-yr) flood shall also be evaluated, with special attention to any risks to people or property. This is done to ensure that there are no unexpected flood hazards inherent in the proposed facility for flood events exceeding the design discharge. | After sizing a drainage facility using the [[:Category:748 Hydraulics and Drainage|design flood criteria]], the ability of the proposed facility to pass the base (100-yr) flood shall also be evaluated, with special attention to any risks to people or property. This is done to ensure that there are no unexpected flood hazards inherent in the proposed facility for flood events exceeding the design discharge. | ||
− | The overtopping flood shall be determined for all crossroad structures | + | ==749.2.3 Overtopping Flood== |
+ | The overtopping flood is defined as the discharge and corresponding return period and water surface elevation at which flow occurs over the roadway. The overtopping flood shall be determined for all crossroad structures. The resulting overtopping flood discharge and approximate return period shall be included on the project plans. When the overtopping flood is greater than the 100-year flood, the return period should be noted as “>100 yr”. If the overtopping flood is less than the 100-year flood, the magnitude and water surface elevation of the 100-year flood shall also be included on the project plans. For reporting overtopping for bridges, refer to [[750.3 Bridges#750.3.2.4.5 Overtopping Discharge and Frequency|EPG 750.3.2.4.5 Overtopping Discharge and Frequency]]. | ||
− | + | ==749.2.4 National Flood Insurance Program Criteria== | |
− | Meeting the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations can necessitate larger structures than those designed to meet the above design frequencies. The designer shall ensure that the final design meets all requirements of the NFIP. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) maps should be consulted to determine the applicable NFIP requirements | + | Meeting the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations can necessitate larger structures than those designed to meet the above design frequencies. The designer shall ensure that the final design meets all requirements of the NFIP. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) maps should be consulted to determine the applicable NFIP requirements. |
See the following for definitions and additional information on the NFIP: | See the following for definitions and additional information on the NFIP: | ||
Line 33: | Line 48: | ||
*[[748.9 National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)|National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)]] for structures | *[[748.9 National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)|National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)]] for structures | ||
− | + | =749.3 Design Data= | |
+ | |||
In order to carry out the hydrologic analysis of a watershed, it is necessary to assemble certain data. This data includes the drainage area, the length of the hydraulically longest drainage path, the elevation of the watershed ridge, the elevation of the watershed outlet, the hydrologic soil group, the type of terrain, the land use of the watershed, and information on the extent of development in urban areas. The topographic data should be obtained from suitable maps when maps are available. Suitable maps are defined as department manuscripts and 7-1/2 or 15 minute USGS topographic maps or maps of equal quality. Only when such maps are not available should field measurements be made for the purpose of obtaining hydrologic information. The land use and terrain of the watershed should be evaluated in the field by the designer. The hydrologic soil group is either given on the soil survey performed by the Materials Division or is to be determined from county soil survey maps or from information from the soil survey and site visits. | In order to carry out the hydrologic analysis of a watershed, it is necessary to assemble certain data. This data includes the drainage area, the length of the hydraulically longest drainage path, the elevation of the watershed ridge, the elevation of the watershed outlet, the hydrologic soil group, the type of terrain, the land use of the watershed, and information on the extent of development in urban areas. The topographic data should be obtained from suitable maps when maps are available. Suitable maps are defined as department manuscripts and 7-1/2 or 15 minute USGS topographic maps or maps of equal quality. Only when such maps are not available should field measurements be made for the purpose of obtaining hydrologic information. The land use and terrain of the watershed should be evaluated in the field by the designer. The hydrologic soil group is either given on the soil survey performed by the Materials Division or is to be determined from county soil survey maps or from information from the soil survey and site visits. | ||
− | + | =749.4 Rural vs. Urban Hydrology= | |
− | Small watersheds may be divided into rural and urban classifications. A rural watershed is a drainage basin whose natural response to rainfall has not been substantially altered by urban land activity. Rural watersheds may be either natural or agricultural. | + | |
+ | Small watersheds may be divided into rural and urban classifications. | ||
+ | |||
+ | Three methods are presented in this article for estimating peak rates of runoff from small watersheds. The Rational Method may be used on all watersheds smaller than 200 acres. On watersheds within the area limits shown in the table below, United States Geological Survey (USGS) Regression Equations may be used. The [[#749.9.1 NRCS Unit Hydrograph|Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Unit Hydrograph]] may also be used for drainage areas larger than 6.40 acres. | ||
+ | |||
+ | For more information on watershed area limits for the above methods see Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits table. | ||
+ | <center> | ||
+ | ==Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits== | ||
+ | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" style="text-align:center" | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | !style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="4"|Calculation Method !!style="background:#BEBEBE" |Minimum Drainage Area !!style="background:#BEBEBE" |Maximum Drainage Area | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="4"|Rational Method ||0 ||200 acres | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="4"|NRCS Unit Hydrograph|| 6.4 acres|| 16,000 acres | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |rowspan="5"|USGS Regression Equations||rowspan="4" width="80"|Rural||rowspan="3"| 2014|| Region I||70.4 acres|| >10,000 acres | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Region II|| 108.8 acres|| >10,000 acres | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Region III|| 1,356.8 acres|| >10,000 acres | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |1995|| Region III|| 307.2 acres|| >10,000 acres | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Urban||colspan="2"|2010|| 180 acres|| >10,000 acres | ||
+ | |} | ||
+ | </center> | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.4.1 Rural Watersheds == | ||
+ | |||
+ | A rural watershed is a drainage basin whose natural response to rainfall has not been substantially altered by urban land activity. Rural watersheds may be either natural or agricultural. | ||
+ | |||
+ | The Rational Method may be used on rural watersheds smaller than 200 acres. On watersheds larger than 200 acres, the USGS Regression Equations should be used. The 2014 USGS Rural Regression Equations may be used for Watersheds that lie in Region I and Region II if the drainage area is greater than 70 acres and 110 acres respectively. Watersheds that lie within Region III for the 2014 USGS Rural Regression Equations and have drainage areas between 200 to 1350 acres do not fall within the limits for either set of equations. In this case one of the following approaches may be used: | ||
+ | |||
+ | :a. Use an alternate method such as [[#749.9 Flood Hydrographs|Flood Hydrographs]]; | ||
+ | :b. for drainage areas greater than 300 acres use the 1995 USGS Rural Regression Equations; | ||
+ | :c. for drainage areas between 200 and 300 acres calculate the peak rate of runoff using the Rational Method and the 1995 USGS Rural Regression Equations, and use the one that is most appropriate. | ||
+ | |||
+ | The [[#749.9.1 NRCS Unit Hydrograph|NRCS Unit Hydrograph]] may also be used for drainage areas larger than 6.40 acres. | ||
+ | |||
+ | For more information on watershed area limits for the above methods see Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits table. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.4.2 Urban Watersheds== | ||
An urban watershed may be defined as a drainage basin in which manmade developments in the form of impervious surfaces and/or storm drainage systems have substantially altered the basin's natural response to rainfall. Urbanization of a natural watershed progresses in one of two ways. First, the addition of impervious surfaces in the form of roads, streets, parking lots and roofs will prevent infiltration of rainfall into the covered soil surface, thus increasing the total volume and peak rate of runoff from a given rainfall volume. Second, to protect the now valuable property in a developed watershed from this increased peak and volume of runoff, storm drainage systems are installed. The installation of a storm drainage system does not increase the volume of runoff, but modifies the time distribution of runoff. Thus, when storm water drainage systems are installed, the time of concentration of the watershed is decreased. Therefore, storm water drainage systems have the effect of removing a given volume of runoff in a shorter period of time, thus further increasing the peak rate of runoff. | An urban watershed may be defined as a drainage basin in which manmade developments in the form of impervious surfaces and/or storm drainage systems have substantially altered the basin's natural response to rainfall. Urbanization of a natural watershed progresses in one of two ways. First, the addition of impervious surfaces in the form of roads, streets, parking lots and roofs will prevent infiltration of rainfall into the covered soil surface, thus increasing the total volume and peak rate of runoff from a given rainfall volume. Second, to protect the now valuable property in a developed watershed from this increased peak and volume of runoff, storm drainage systems are installed. The installation of a storm drainage system does not increase the volume of runoff, but modifies the time distribution of runoff. Thus, when storm water drainage systems are installed, the time of concentration of the watershed is decreased. Therefore, storm water drainage systems have the effect of removing a given volume of runoff in a shorter period of time, thus further increasing the peak rate of runoff. | ||
Line 43: | Line 101: | ||
All hydraulic design in urban areas should consider the effect of increasing development throughout the projected life of the structure. Information on planned future development may be available from local agencies. | All hydraulic design in urban areas should consider the effect of increasing development throughout the projected life of the structure. Information on planned future development may be available from local agencies. | ||
− | + | The Rational Method should be used on urban watersheds smaller than 200 acres. On watersheds larger than 200 acres, the USGS Urban Regression Equations should be used. The [[#749.9.1 NRCS Unit Hydrograph|NRCS Unit Hydrograph]] may also be used for drainage areas larger than 6.40 acres. | |
− | + | For more information on watershed area limits for the above methods see [[#Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits|Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits table]]. | |
+ | |||
+ | =749.5 The Rational Method= | ||
The Rational Method was developed as early as 1889, and despite its limitations is one of the most widely used methods of estimating peak flows. Several assumptions are implicit in application of the Rational Method: | The Rational Method was developed as early as 1889, and despite its limitations is one of the most widely used methods of estimating peak flows. Several assumptions are implicit in application of the Rational Method: | ||
Line 54: | Line 114: | ||
The first assumption implies that a homogeneous rainfall event is applied uniformly to the entire drainage area, and may not be valid for larger watersheds where constant rainfalls of high intensity do not occur simultaneously over the entire watershed. This assumption also provides the basis for using the watershed's time of concentration as the duration of the design storm. The second assumption again limits the size of the drainage area because for larger basins, factors other than rainfall frequency can play a large role in determining the flood frequency. Finally, the third assumption is reasonable for highly impervious areas, but less reasonable for pervious areas where the antecedent moisture condition plays a large role in determining the amount of rainfall that becomes surface runoff. For these reasons, use of the Rational Method is limited to small watersheds. | The first assumption implies that a homogeneous rainfall event is applied uniformly to the entire drainage area, and may not be valid for larger watersheds where constant rainfalls of high intensity do not occur simultaneously over the entire watershed. This assumption also provides the basis for using the watershed's time of concentration as the duration of the design storm. The second assumption again limits the size of the drainage area because for larger basins, factors other than rainfall frequency can play a large role in determining the flood frequency. Finally, the third assumption is reasonable for highly impervious areas, but less reasonable for pervious areas where the antecedent moisture condition plays a large role in determining the amount of rainfall that becomes surface runoff. For these reasons, use of the Rational Method is limited to small watersheds. | ||
− | + | ==749.5.1 Equation== | |
The Rational Method is expressed by the following formula. | The Rational Method is expressed by the following formula. | ||
− | :<math>Q=k_cCIA\,</math> | + | :<math>Q=k_cCIA\,</math> |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 67: | Line 127: | ||
:A = drainage area of the watershed, acres | :A = drainage area of the watershed, acres | ||
− | + | ==749.5.2 Runoff Coefficient== | |
The runoff coefficient represents the ratio of runoff to the total rainfall and combines the effects of several watershed characteristics such as land use, soil type, cover condition, and general terrain or watershed slope. | The runoff coefficient represents the ratio of runoff to the total rainfall and combines the effects of several watershed characteristics such as land use, soil type, cover condition, and general terrain or watershed slope. | ||
− | + | ===749.5.2.1 Rural Runoff Coefficients=== | |
For rural watersheds, the soil type, land use, and terrain are used to determine runoff coefficients. | For rural watersheds, the soil type, land use, and terrain are used to determine runoff coefficients. | ||
− | The | + | The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) has classified about 4,000 major soils found in the United States into four basic hydrologic groups as follows: |
:'''Group A (Low runoff potential)''' - Soils having high infiltration rates even when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of deep, well-drained sands or gravels. These soils have a high rate of water transmission. | :'''Group A (Low runoff potential)''' - Soils having high infiltration rates even when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of deep, well-drained sands or gravels. These soils have a high rate of water transmission. | ||
Line 80: | Line 140: | ||
:'''Group D (High runoff potential)''' - Soils having very slow infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of clay soils with a high swelling potential, soils with a permanent high water table, soils with a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and shallow soils over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission. | :'''Group D (High runoff potential)''' - Soils having very slow infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of clay soils with a high swelling potential, soils with a permanent high water table, soils with a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and shallow soils over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission. | ||
− | The | + | The NRCS has performed modern soil surveys for many counties in Missouri, classifying the soils by a soil series name. The hydrologic soil group is given in the NRCS soil survey for these soils. If a modern soil survey map is not available for the county in question, the hydrologic soil group should be determined by the designer. This may be done by evaluating information available from the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division and/or from a site visit and choosing the appropriate hydrologic soil group from the descriptions given above. The district soils and geology technologist may provide assistance in determining the hydrologic soil group. |
− | For smaller projects, the soil series name and hydrologic soil group for soils along the right of way are generally given on the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division. For larger projects, this soil survey does not name individual soil series, but rather gives "soil associations" along the right of way. These soil associations are groupings of soil series that have similar physical characteristics; however, the soils in an association may not have the same hydrologic soil group. Additionally, in many instances it will be necessary to determine a hydrologic soil group for soils located some distance from the right of way. In these cases, the hydrologic soil group should be determined by the designer from the | + | For smaller projects, the soil series name and hydrologic soil group for soils along the right of way are generally given on the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division. For larger projects, this soil survey does not name individual soil series, but rather gives "soil associations" along the right of way. These soil associations are groupings of soil series that have similar physical characteristics; however, the soils in an association may not have the same hydrologic soil group. Additionally, in many instances it will be necessary to determine a hydrologic soil group for soils located some distance from the right of way. In these cases, the hydrologic soil group should be determined by the designer from the NRCS county soil survey map, if available, or by evaluating information available from the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division and/or from a site visit. |
Land use and terrain can be determined by inspection of appropriate topographic maps or by a field inspection. After the hydrologic soil group, land use, and terrain have been determined, the runoff coefficient(s) to be used for estimating the 10-year peak flow for the rural watershed can be found in the following table. | Land use and terrain can be determined by inspection of appropriate topographic maps or by a field inspection. After the hydrologic soil group, land use, and terrain have been determined, the runoff coefficient(s) to be used for estimating the 10-year peak flow for the rural watershed can be found in the following table. | ||
Line 88: | Line 148: | ||
{| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | ||
|+ '''Rural Runoff Coefficients for 5 and 10-Yr Frequency Flows''' | |+ '''Rural Runoff Coefficients for 5 and 10-Yr Frequency Flows''' | ||
− | ! rowspan="2" style="background:#BEBEBE"|Topography and Vegetation !! style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="4"| | + | ! rowspan="2" style="background:#BEBEBE"|Topography and Vegetation !! style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="4"|NRCS Hydrologic Soil Group |
|- | |- | ||
! style="background:#BEBEBE"|A !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|B !! Style="background:#BEBEBE"|C | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|A !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|B !! Style="background:#BEBEBE"|C | ||
Line 119: | Line 179: | ||
|colspan="5"|<sup>1</sup>Flat 0-5% slope; Rolling 5-10%; Hilly 10-30% | |colspan="5"|<sup>1</sup>Flat 0-5% slope; Rolling 5-10%; Hilly 10-30% | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="5 | + | |colspan="5" |''Source'': Adapted from Ponce (1989) |
|} | |} | ||
− | + | ===749.5.2.2 Urban Runoff Coefficients=== | |
For urban watersheds, the runoff coefficient is primarily a function of land use and watershed slope. The following table gives a range of "C" values for various land use types in urban areas. The value selected by the designer should reflect the watershed slope, with steeper slopes having higher "C" values. | For urban watersheds, the runoff coefficient is primarily a function of land use and watershed slope. The following table gives a range of "C" values for various land use types in urban areas. The value selected by the designer should reflect the watershed slope, with steeper slopes having higher "C" values. | ||
Line 167: | Line 227: | ||
|Sodded Roadway Slopes (1V:6H to 1V:1H)||0.40 - 0.60 | |Sodded Roadway Slopes (1V:6H to 1V:1H)||0.40 - 0.60 | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="2 | + | |colspan="2" |''Source'': Ponce (1979) |
|} | |} | ||
− | + | ===749.5.2.3 Design Frequency=== | |
The [[#749.5.2.1 Rural Runoff Coefficients|rural]] and [[#749.5.2.2 Urban Runoff Coefficients|urban]] runoff coefficients given in the tables above are appropriate for 5-year or 10-year design frequencies. Estimation of peak flows for less frequent storms requires the use of a higher runoff coefficient because infiltration and other abstractions have proportionately less effect on the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. To obtain runoff coefficients for other frequency events, the "C" value is multiplied by a frequency correction factor. The frequency correction factor is 1.10 for the 25-year event, 1.20 for the 50-year event, and 1.25 for the 100-year event. However, the resulting runoff coefficient (original "C" multiplied by the frequency correction factor) may not be greater than 1.0. | The [[#749.5.2.1 Rural Runoff Coefficients|rural]] and [[#749.5.2.2 Urban Runoff Coefficients|urban]] runoff coefficients given in the tables above are appropriate for 5-year or 10-year design frequencies. Estimation of peak flows for less frequent storms requires the use of a higher runoff coefficient because infiltration and other abstractions have proportionately less effect on the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. To obtain runoff coefficients for other frequency events, the "C" value is multiplied by a frequency correction factor. The frequency correction factor is 1.10 for the 25-year event, 1.20 for the 50-year event, and 1.25 for the 100-year event. However, the resulting runoff coefficient (original "C" multiplied by the frequency correction factor) may not be greater than 1.0. | ||
− | + | ===749.5.2.4 Composite Runoff Coefficients=== | |
− | The land use and soil type may vary from one portion of a watershed to another. In this case an average runoff coefficient, weighted by area, should be used. For example, consider a flat watershed with soils of average infiltration capacity (soil group B) and with 1/3 of the drainage area cultivated (C=0.40) and 2/3 of the drainage area in woodland cover (C=0.20). The weighted average runoff coefficient to be used to estimate the 10-year flood is | + | The land use and soil type may vary from one portion of a watershed to another. In this case an average runoff coefficient, weighted by area, should be used. For example, consider a flat watershed with soils of average infiltration capacity (soil group B) and with 1/3 of the drainage area cultivated (C=0.40) and 2/3 of the drainage area in woodland cover (C=0.20). The weighted average runoff coefficient to be used to estimate the 10-year flood is: |
− | <math>C=[(0.40)(1/3)+(0.20)(2/3)]/1.0=0.267\,</math> | + | :<math>C=[(0.40)(1/3)+(0.20)(2/3)]/1.0=0.267\,</math> |
The frequency correction factor may be applied to the weighted average runoff coefficient to estimate lower frequency flows: in the above example, a "C" value of (1.10)(0.267)=0.294 would be used for the 25-year flood, and a "C" of (1.20)(0.267)=0.320 would be used for the 50-year flood. | The frequency correction factor may be applied to the weighted average runoff coefficient to estimate lower frequency flows: in the above example, a "C" value of (1.10)(0.267)=0.294 would be used for the 25-year flood, and a "C" of (1.20)(0.267)=0.320 would be used for the 50-year flood. | ||
− | + | ==749.5.3 Time of Concentration== | |
In order to determine the rainfall intensity used in the Rational Method, the time of concentration of the watershed must be estimated. The time of concentration of a watershed is defined as the time required for water to travel from the most hydraulically distant point of the watershed to the watershed outlet. This is also the time required before the entire watershed begins to contribute flow to the watershed outlet. This characteristic response time of the watershed is used as the duration of the design storm and thus influences the value of rainfall intensity used in the Rational Method. | In order to determine the rainfall intensity used in the Rational Method, the time of concentration of the watershed must be estimated. The time of concentration of a watershed is defined as the time required for water to travel from the most hydraulically distant point of the watershed to the watershed outlet. This is also the time required before the entire watershed begins to contribute flow to the watershed outlet. This characteristic response time of the watershed is used as the duration of the design storm and thus influences the value of rainfall intensity used in the Rational Method. | ||
Line 187: | Line 247: | ||
In general, the time of concentration of urban drainage basins will be shorter than the time of concentration of rural basins. This is true when the natural drainage channels have been altered by storm sewers, main channel straightening, paving or similar modifications. | In general, the time of concentration of urban drainage basins will be shorter than the time of concentration of rural basins. This is true when the natural drainage channels have been altered by storm sewers, main channel straightening, paving or similar modifications. | ||
− | The time of concentration of | + | The time of concentration of a watershed will consist of the summation of travel times from one or more of the following flow regimes: |
+ | |||
+ | :* overland flow, | ||
+ | :* ditch or open channel flow, | ||
+ | :* and storm sewer system flow. | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''Overland Flow.''' The overland flow regime consists of very shallow sheet flow over the watershed surface. The velocities in overland flow are typically much lower than in the other flow regimes. Overland flow will become concentrated after a short distance and transform into one of the other flow regimes. | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''Open Channel Flow.''' The open channel flow regime consists of: | ||
+ | |||
+ | :* flow that has concentrated into swales or ditches, or | ||
+ | :* an outlet discharge from a storm sewer system | ||
+ | :* If open channel flow is a combination of the two, both contributors should be evaluated and engineering judgment used to determine the appropriate time of concentration. | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''Storm Sewer System Flow.''' Velocities are typically greater in sewer systems than in natural ditches or channels. The storm sewer system flow regime consists of: | ||
− | + | :* Overland flow entering drain inlets, or | |
+ | :* open channel flow entering drain inlets. | ||
+ | :* If sewer system flow is a combination of the two, both contributors should be evaluated and engineering judgment used to determine the appropriate time of concentration. | ||
− | + | ===749.5.3.1 Rural Watersheds=== | |
− | For | + | For rural drainage basins the Kerby-Kirpich Method described below is a recommended method of determining time of concentration. Other methods such as those provided by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) may be used as deemed necessary or appropriate by engineering judgment. See Velocity Method in Chapter 2 of FHWA publication ''Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 (HDS-2)'' for details on the NRCS method. |
− | :<math>t_c=KL^{0.77}S^{-0.385}\,</math> | + | ===749.5.3.2 Urban Watersheds=== |
+ | For urban drainage basins the Kerby-Hathaway Equation for Overland Flow plus the appropriate Channel or Storm Sewer Travel Time as described below is a recommended method of determining time of concentration. Other methods such as those provided by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) may be used as deemed necessary or appropriate by engineering judgment. See Velocity Method in Chapter 2 of FHWA publication ''Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 (HDS-2)'' for details on the NRCS method. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===749.5.3.3 Kerby-Kirpich Method=== | ||
+ | For rural drainage basins the Kerby- Hathaway and Kirpich methods can be used in conjunction to estimate the time of concentration. | ||
+ | |||
+ | :T<sub>c</sub> = t<sub>o</sub> + t<sub>c</sub> | ||
+ | |||
+ | :where: | ||
+ | |||
+ | :T<sub>c</sub> = the total time of concentration (min) | ||
+ | :t<sub>o</sub> = the overland flow time of concentration from the Kerby-Hathaway equation (min) | ||
+ | :t<sub>c</sub> = the channel flow time of concentration from the Kirpich equation (min) | ||
+ | |||
+ | ====749.5.3.3.1 Low (Flat) Slopes==== | ||
+ | In watersheds with low topographical relief, time of concentration calculations will often result in unreasonably large values. Cleveland, et al. 2012 recommends the following adjustment to the slope in the Kirpich and Kerby-Hathaway equations to provide a more realistic estimate of the time of concentration: | ||
+ | :* For slopes flatter than 0.002 ft/ft (0.2%) the adjusted slope should be increased by 0.0005 (S<sub>adj</sub> = S + 0.0005). | ||
+ | :* For slopes between 0.002 ft/ft (0.2%) and 0.003 ft/ft (0.3%) engineering judgment should be used to determine if the adjustment to the slope should be made. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ====749.5.3.3.2 Kirpich Equation==== | ||
+ | Open channel flow travel time for streams with natural beds, or that mimic natural beds, can be calculated using the Kirpich Equations If flow regimes are combined the upstream end of the flow length (L) should extent to the basin divide. | ||
+ | |||
+ | :<math>t_c=KL^{0.77}S^{-0.385}\,</math> | ||
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 200: | Line 298: | ||
:t<sub>c</sub> = the time of concentration (min) | :t<sub>c</sub> = the time of concentration (min) | ||
:K = 0.0078 | :K = 0.0078 | ||
− | :L = the length of the principal watercourse | + | :L = the flow length of the principal watercourse, ft. |
:S = the slope between the minimum and maximum elevation, ft./ft. | :S = the slope between the minimum and maximum elevation, ft./ft. | ||
− | ====749.5.3. | + | ====749.5.3.3.3 Kerby-Hathaway Equation for Overland Flow==== |
Overland flow travel time can be calculated using the Kerby-Hathaway equation: | Overland flow travel time can be calculated using the Kerby-Hathaway equation: | ||
− | :<math>t_o=K(Ln)^{0.47}S^{-0.235}\,</math> | + | :<math>t_o=K(Ln)^{0.47}S^{-0.235}\,</math> |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 216: | Line 314: | ||
:S = the overland flow slope, ft./ft. | :S = the overland flow slope, ft./ft. | ||
− | The roughness coefficient, n, used in this equation is similar in meaning to that used in Manning's equation for open-channel flow; however, for a given type of surface, the roughness coefficient for overland flow will be considerably larger than for open-channel flow. Typical values for the roughness coefficient are given in the table below. The overland flow length should be limited to less than 500 ft. | + | The roughness coefficient, n, used in this equation is similar in meaning to that used in Manning's equation for open-channel flow; however, for a given type of surface, the roughness coefficient for overland flow will be considerably larger than for open-channel flow. Typical values for the roughness coefficient are given in the table below. The overland flow length should be limited to less than 500 ft.;it is usually much less and engineering judgment should be used for lengths of more than 200 ft. After a short distance, overland flow usually changes flow regimes and begins to concentrate in swales or ditches, or into a storm sewer system. |
{| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | ||
|+ '''Roughness Coefficients for Overland Flow''' | |+ '''Roughness Coefficients for Overland Flow''' | ||
− | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Type of Surface !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|N | + | ! style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="2" width="225"|Type of Surface !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|N |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="2"|Dense Growth|| 0.40 to 0.50 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="2"|Pasture|| 0.30 to 0.40 |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="2"| | + | |colspan="2"|Lawns|| 0.20 to 0.30 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="2"|Bluegrass Sod|| 0.20 to 0.50 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="2"|Short-Grass Prairie|| 0.10 to 0.20 |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="2"| | + | |colspan="2"|Sparse Vegetation|| 0.05 to 0.13 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="2"|Bare Clay-Loam Soil (Eroded)|| 0.01 to 0.03 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="3"|Concrete - Asphalt |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | | ||Very Shallow Depths < ¼”|| 0.10 to 0.15 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | | ||Shallow Depths > ¼”|| 0.05 to 0.10 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |colspan="2"|Deciduous Timberland|| 0.50 to 0.70 |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="2"| | + | |colspan="2"|Conifer Timberland|| 0.60 to 0.80 |
|- | |- | ||
− | + | |colspan="3" style="background:#f5f5f5"|Source: Ponce et al. (1989) | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |colspan=" | ||
|} | |} | ||
− | + | ===749.5.3.4 Storm Sewer Travel Time=== | |
The storm sewer travel time is the summation of travel times in each component of the sewer system between the uppermost inlet and the outlet. These times may be estimated by use of the open channel flow charts presented in [[750.1 Open Channels|Open Channels]]. The proper procedure is to solve for the velocity of flow in each component assuming the pipe is flowing at maximum capacity. The velocity of flow is then divided into the length of flow to obtain the travel time. In order to use this method, it is necessary to obtain detailed information on the existing storm sewer system. This information includes conduit sizes, materials, lengths and slopes. If this information is not available or if the structure being designed is not considered important enough to warrant the effort required for such a detailed analysis, the storm sewer travel time may be estimated by use of the [[#749.5.3.1 Kirpich Equation|Kirpich Equation]]. In this case, the travel time given by the Kirpich Equation should be multiplied by 0.20 to obtain the travel time in the storm sewer system. | The storm sewer travel time is the summation of travel times in each component of the sewer system between the uppermost inlet and the outlet. These times may be estimated by use of the open channel flow charts presented in [[750.1 Open Channels|Open Channels]]. The proper procedure is to solve for the velocity of flow in each component assuming the pipe is flowing at maximum capacity. The velocity of flow is then divided into the length of flow to obtain the travel time. In order to use this method, it is necessary to obtain detailed information on the existing storm sewer system. This information includes conduit sizes, materials, lengths and slopes. If this information is not available or if the structure being designed is not considered important enough to warrant the effort required for such a detailed analysis, the storm sewer travel time may be estimated by use of the [[#749.5.3.1 Kirpich Equation|Kirpich Equation]]. In this case, the travel time given by the Kirpich Equation should be multiplied by 0.20 to obtain the travel time in the storm sewer system. | ||
− | + | ===749.5.3.5 Channel Flow Travel Time=== | |
The travel time in the open channel flow phase can be estimated by first estimating the velocity of flow in the channel. The velocity of flow is then divided into the length of flow to obtain the travel time. For subcritical flow conditions, the velocity should be determined for bank-full conditions at the mid-point of the channel's length. If the channel is improved, the average velocity may be estimated from the flow charts or flow computations presented in [[750.1 Open Channels|Open Channels]]. If the channel is natural, the travel time may be estimated by open channel flow computations. Care should be taken when estimating channel flow travel time for supercritical flow conditions. In some cases, the bank-full velocity under supercritical conditions may be too high to provide a reasonable estimate of travel time and a more reasonable estimate of flow depth should be used instead. | The travel time in the open channel flow phase can be estimated by first estimating the velocity of flow in the channel. The velocity of flow is then divided into the length of flow to obtain the travel time. For subcritical flow conditions, the velocity should be determined for bank-full conditions at the mid-point of the channel's length. If the channel is improved, the average velocity may be estimated from the flow charts or flow computations presented in [[750.1 Open Channels|Open Channels]]. If the channel is natural, the travel time may be estimated by open channel flow computations. Care should be taken when estimating channel flow travel time for supercritical flow conditions. In some cases, the bank-full velocity under supercritical conditions may be too high to provide a reasonable estimate of travel time and a more reasonable estimate of flow depth should be used instead. | ||
− | + | ==749.5.4 Rainfall Intensity== | |
The design rainfall intensity is a function of the storm duration, the design frequency and the geographic location. The storm duration is taken as the time of concentration of the watershed or five minutes, whichever is greater. Knowing the storm duration and the design frequency, the rainfall intensity may be read from the appropriate Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve for each district. | The design rainfall intensity is a function of the storm duration, the design frequency and the geographic location. The storm duration is taken as the time of concentration of the watershed or five minutes, whichever is greater. Knowing the storm duration and the design frequency, the rainfall intensity may be read from the appropriate Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve for each district. | ||
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF NW.docx|Northwest District]] |
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF NE.docx|Northeast District]] |
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF KC.docx|Kansas City District]] |
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF Cen 2019.docx|Central District]] |
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF SL.docx|St. Louis District]] |
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF SW.docx|Southwest District]] |
− | :[[media:749 IDF | + | :[[media:749 IDF SE.docx|Southeast District]] |
− | :[[ | + | |
− | + | =749.6 USGS Regression Equations= | |
− | + | The USGS Regression equations were developed by the United States Geological Survey. Data from stream gage sites were analyzed to determine flood magnitudes with various recurrence intervals. The resulting magnitudes were then related to basin characteristics through a statistical analysis to provide the regression equations. Three sets of equations are currently available: 2014 and 1995 Rural Regression Equations, and Urban Regression Equations. | |
+ | |||
+ | Stream flows for ungaged sites on streams that have a stream gage(s) may be determined using the area weighted method shown in [[#749.7 Historical USGS Stream Gage Data|EPG 749.7, Historical USGS Stream Gage Data]]. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.6.1 Rural Regression Equations== | ||
+ | For ungaged natural flood flow sites, flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 (2014 only) and 500 years are computed by using appropriate values of the contributing drainage basin area (A) and basin shape (B) (2014) or slope (S) (1995) in the equations shown in the Rural Regression Equations tables. A computer program is available to assist in performing these calculations. The state is divided into [[media:749.6.1.pdf|three hydrologic regions]], each with its own set of regression coefficients. The three regions are described as follows: | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''Region I - Central Lowlands''' - Characterized by meandering stream channels in wide and flat valleys with local relief generally between 50 to 150 feet. Elevations range from about 600 ft. above sea level near the Mississippi River to about 1200 ft. above sea level in the northwestern part of the state. | ||
− | + | '''Region II - Ozark Plateaus''' - - Characterized by streams that have narrow valleys 200 to 500 ft. deep, with local relief generally ranging from 100 to 500 feet. Main channel gradients generally are steeper than elsewhere in Missouri, and karst features are locally prominent in much of the region. Elevations (generally) range from 800 to 1700 ft. above sea level. Region II also includes the geological formation known as Crowley’s Ridge which rises 250 to 550 ft. above the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and reflects hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics similar to the Ozark Plateau. | |
− | |||
− | + | '''Region III - Mississippi Alluvial Plain''' - This is a relatively flat area and is predominately agricultural cropland. Virtually all the area is drained by a series of man-made drainage ditches with average slopes of about 1.5 ft./mile. Elevations range from 200 to 300 ft. above sea level with local relief seldom exceeding 30 feet. | |
− | |||
− | + | ===749.6.1.1 2014 Rural Regression Equations=== | |
− | + | Engineering judgment should be exercised when using these equations to ensure that the subject drainage area is similar in characteristics to the USGS region being used. Portions of eastern Butler and Ripley counties are especially sensitive as some streams will be consistent with slopes for Region 2 and others with Region 3. | |
− | + | Valid data ranges for each of the regional equations are listed in the Valid Data Ranges table below. The Supplemental Data Ranges table may be used to help determine which regional equation to use, but should not be used to determine the validity of the equations. | |
+ | <center> | ||
− | '''Region II - | + | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" style="text-align:center" |
+ | |- | ||
+ | !style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="4" width="350"|Valid Data Ranges!!style="background:#BEBEBE" | !!style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="4" width="450"|Supplemental Data Ranges | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="2"|Drainage Area (mi<sup>2</sup>)||colspan="2"|Basin Shape||style="background:#BEBEBE" | ||colspan="2"|Basin Slope (ft/ft)||colspan="2"|Valley Slope (ft/mi) | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Min.|| Max.|| Min.|| Max.||style="background:#BEBEBE" | || Min.|| Max.|| Min.|| Max. | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |0.11|| 8212.38|| 2.25|| 26.59||''' Region I'''|| 0.0141|| 0.1812|| 1.53|| 198.02 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |0.17|| 4008.92|| 2.04|| 26.89||''' Region II'''|| 0.0133|| 0.1999|| 0.34|| 257.13 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |2.12|| 2177.58|| na|| na||''' Region III'''|| 0.0017|| 0.0388|| 0.61|| 2.07 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="9" align="left"|Source: Southard and Veilleux (2014) | ||
+ | |} | ||
+ | </center> | ||
− | |||
− | + | ::::::::{| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" style="text-align:center" | |
− | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | + | |- |
− | | | + | !style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="3"|2014 Rural Regression Equations |
− | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Freq. !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Magnitude !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Std. Error of Prediction ! | + | |- |
+ | !style="background:#BEBEBE"| Flood Freq.<br/>(years)!!style="background:#BEBEBE" |Flood Magnitude<br/>ft<sup>3</sup>/s!!style="background:#BEBEBE" |Std. Error of Prediction<br/>(%) | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | !colspan="3"|Region I | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |2|| (10<sup>2.594</sup>)*(A<sup>0.618</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.282</sup>)|| 38 | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | + | |5|| (10<sup>2.861</sup>)*(A<sup>0.593</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.266</sup>)|| 31 | |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |10|| (10<sup>2.990</sup>)*(A<sup>0.580</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.258</sup>)|| 29 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |25|| (10<sup>3.120</sup>)*(A<sup>0.568</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.248</sup>)|| 29 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |50|| (10<sup>3.199</sup>)*(A<sup>0.560</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.242</sup>)|| 29 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |100|| (10<sup>3.266</sup>)*(A<sup>0.554</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.236</sup>)|| 30 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |200|| (10<sup>3.324</sup>)*(A<sup>0.550</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.231</sup>)|| 31 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |500|| (10<sup>3.391</sup>)*(A<sup>0.544</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.226<sup>)|| 33 |
|- | |- | ||
− | + | !colspan="3"|Region II | |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |2|| (10<sup>2.493</sup>)*(A<sup>0.686</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.222</sup>)|| 44 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |5|| (10<sup>2.801</sup>)*(A<sup>0.679</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.251</sup>)|| 32 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |10|| (10<sup>2.955</sup>)*(A<sup>0.676</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.268</sup>)|| 28 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |25|| (10<sup>3.113</sup>)*(A<sup>0.673</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.287</sup>)|| 24 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |50|| (10<sup>3.205</sup>)*(A<sup>0.671</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.296</sup>)|| 24 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |100|| (10<sup>3.282</sup>)*(A<sup>0.669</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.302</sup>)|| 24 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |200|| (10<sup>3.349</sup>)*(A<sup>0.668</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.307</sup>)|| 25 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |500|| (10<sup>3.422</sup>)*(A<sup>0.667</sup>)*(BS<sup>-0.311</sup>)|| 27 |
|- | |- | ||
− | + | !colspan="3"|Region III | |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |2|| (10<sup>1.933</sup>)*(A<sup>0.665</sup>)|| 30 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |5|| (10<sup>2.026</sup>)*(A<sup>0.681</sup>)|| 26 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |10|| (10<sup>2.070</sup>)*(A<sup>0.689</sup>)|| 26 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |25|| (10<sup>2.113</sup>)*(A<sup>0.698</sup>)|| 26 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |50|| (10<sup>2.139</sup>)*(A<sup>0.703</sup>)|| 27 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |100|| (10<sup>2.162</sup>)*(A<sup>0.708</sup>)|| 27 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |200|| (10<sup>2.182</sup>)*(A<sup>0.713</sup>)|| 28 |
|- | |- | ||
− | + | |500|| (10<sup>2.204</sup>)*(A<sup>0.718</sup>)|| 29 | |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan=" | + | |colspan="3" align="left"|Source: Southard and Veilleux (2014) |
− | |} | + | |} |
− | |||
− | |||
− | ====749.6.1. | + | ====749.6.1.1.1 Drainage Area==== |
− | + | Drainage area (A) in mi<sup>2</sup>, can be obtained by determining the area contributing surface flows to the site as outlined along the drainage divide on the best available topographic maps or computer program. | |
− | ====749.6.1. | + | ====749.6.1.1.2 Basin Shape==== |
− | The | + | The Basin Shape (BS) is dimensionless and is a statistical method used to determine the magnitude and arrival time of a peak discharge. Basins with elongated shapes will have longer duration hydrographs and lower peak discharges than a circular basin that will have shorter duration hydrographs and higher peak discharges. The value used for the Basin Shape (BS) is calculated by dividing the square of the longest flow path or stream length by the Drainage Area (A). Stream length can be determined using the best available topographic maps or computer program. |
− | + | ====749.6.1.1.3 Limitations of Equations==== | |
+ | The USGS Rural Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most Missouri streams. Caution should be used when using these equations when the drainage area and basin shape are outside of the limits of the Valid Data Ranges shown in [[#749.6.1.1 2014 Rural Regression Equations|EPG 749.6.1.1 2014 Rural Regression Equations]]. | ||
− | + | However, the equations are generally not applicable for: | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | :a) basins where manmade changes have appreciably changed the flow regimen such as: | |
− | + | ::* Regulation of discharge (i.e. dams); | |
+ | ::* Channelization; | ||
+ | ::* Diversion; | ||
+ | ::* Urbanization | ||
+ | :b) the main stems of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers; | ||
+ | :c) basins with greater than 5% impervious area; | ||
+ | :d) areas near the mouth of streams draining into larger rivers where backwater effect is experienced may require special consideration, see [[#749.11 Stream Confluences|EPG 749.11 Stream Confluences]]. | ||
− | + | ===749.6.1.2 1995 Rural Regression Equations=== | |
+ | Valid data ranges for each of the regional equations are listed in the Valid Data Ranges table below: | ||
− | |||
− | ==== | + | <center> |
− | + | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" style="text-align:center" | |
+ | |- | ||
+ | !style="background:#BEBEBE" width="170"| !!style="background:#BEBEBE" colspan="4" width="650"| Valid Data Ranges | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | !style="background:#BEBEBE" width="170"| !! colspan="2"|Drainage Area (mi<sup>2</sup>)!!colspan="2"|Valley Slope (ft/mi) | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |!style="background:#BEBEBE" width="170"| || Min.|| Max.|| Min.|| Max. | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Region I ||0.13 ||11,500 ||1.35 ||150 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Region II ||0.13 ||14,000 ||1.20 ||279 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |Region III ||0.48 ||1040 ||na ||na | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="left" colspan="5"|Source: Alexander and Wilson (1995) | ||
+ | |} | ||
+ | </center> | ||
− | |||
− | + | <div id="Rural Regression Equations"></div> | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | <div id=" | ||
{| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | ||
− | |+ ''' | + | |+ ''' 1995 Rural Regression Equations''' |
− | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Freq. !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Magnitude !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Std. Error of | + | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Freq.<br/>(years) !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Magnitude<br/>ft<sup>3</sup>/s !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Std. Error of Prediction<br/>(%) |
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="3" text align="center" | Region I | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | + | | text align="center"| 2 ||69.4A<sup>0.703</sup>S<sup>0.373</sup> || text align="center"| 34.00 | |
|- | |- | ||
− | | text align="center"| | + | | text align="center"| 5 ||123A<sup>0.690</sup>S<sup>0.383</sup> || text align="center"| 32.00 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | text align="center"| | + | | text align="center"| 10 ||170A<sup>0.680</sup>S<sup>0.378</sup> || text align="center"| 34.00 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | text align="center"| | + | | text align="center"| 25 ||243A<sup>0.668</sup>S<sup>0.366</sup> || text align="center"| 36.00 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | text align="center"| | + | | text align="center"| 50 ||305A<sup>0.660</sup>S<sup>0.356</sup> || text align="center"| 38.00 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | text align="center"| | + | | text align="center"| 100 ||376A<sup>0.652</sup>S<sup>0.346</sup> || text align="center"| 40.00 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | text align="center"| | + | | text align="center"| 500 ||569A<sup>0.636</sup>S<sup>0.321</sup> || text align="center"| 45.00 |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan=" | + | |colspan="3" text align="center" | Region II |
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 2 ||77.9A<sup>0.733</sup>S<sup>0.265</sup> || text align="center"| 43.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 5 ||99.6A<sup>0.763</sup>S<sup>0.355</sup> || text align="center"| 36.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 10 ||117A<sup>0.774</sup>S<sup>0.395</sup> || text align="center"| 34.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 25 ||140A<sup>0.784</sup>S<sup>0.432</sup> || text align="center"| 32.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 50 ||155A<sup>0.789</sup>S<sup>0.453</sup> || text align="center"| 31.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 100 ||170A<sup>0.794</sup>S<sup>0.471</sup> || text align="center"| 32.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 500 ||203A<sup>0.804</sup>S<sup>0.503</sup> || text align="center"| 34.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="3" text align="center" | Region III | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 2 ||88A<sup>0.658</sup> || text align="center"| 34.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 5 ||145A<sup>0.627</sup> || text align="center"| 36.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 10 ||187A<sup>0.612</sup> || text align="center"| 38.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 25 ||244A<sup>0.595</sup> || text align="center"| 41.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 50 ||288A<sup>0.585</sup> || text align="center"| 44.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 100 ||334A<sup>0.576</sup> || text align="center"| 46.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | | text align="center"| 500 ||448A<sup>0.557</sup> || text align="center"| 54.00 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="3" |''Source'': Alexander and Wilson (1995) | ||
|} | |} | ||
− | ====749.6.2. | + | ====749.6.1.2.1 Drainage Area==== |
− | The | + | Drainage area (A) in mi<sup>2</sup>, can be obtained by determining the area contributing surface flows to the site as outlined along the drainage divide on the best available topographic maps or computer program. |
+ | |||
+ | ====749.6.1.2.2 Valley Slope==== | ||
+ | Valley slope (S) in ft./mile is the average slope between points 10 percent and 85 percent of the distance along the main-stream channel from the site to the basin divide. The main channel is defined above stream junctions as the one draining the largest area. The elevation difference between the 10- and 85-percent points is divided by the distance between the points to evaluate the slope. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ====749.6.1.2.3 Limitations of Equations==== | ||
+ | The USGS Rural Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most Missouri streams Caution should be used when using these equations when the drainage area and slope are outside of the limits of the Valid Data Ranges shown in [[#749.6.1.2 1995 Rural Regression Equations|EPG 749.6.1.2 1995 Rural Regression Equations]]. | ||
+ | |||
+ | However, the equations are generally not applicable for: | ||
+ | |||
+ | :a) basins where manmade changes have appreciably changed the flow regimen such as: | ||
+ | ::* Regulation of discharge (i.e. dams); | ||
+ | ::* Channelization; | ||
+ | ::* Diversion; | ||
+ | ::* Urbanization | ||
+ | :b) the main stems of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers; | ||
+ | :c) basins with greater than 5% impervious area. | ||
+ | :d) areas near the mouth of streams draining into larger rivers where backwater effect is experienced may require special consideration, see [[#749.11 Stream Confluences|EPG 749.11 Stream Confluences]]. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.6.2 Urban Regression Equations== | ||
+ | The USGS Rural Regression Equations given above are not applicable to urban watersheds where manmade changes have appreciably changed the flow regimen. A set of equations were developed in 2010 by the [http://mcmcweb.er.usgs.gov/ United States Geological Survey]. Data from 35 gaged sites in urban locations in and adjacent to Missouri were analyzed to determine flood magnitudes with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 years. The resulting magnitudes were then related to drainage area and urban basin characteristics to provide the regression equations. A computer program is available to assist in performing these calculations. | ||
+ | |||
+ | An urban watershed may be defined as a drainage basin in which manmade developments in the form of impervious surfaces and/or storm drainage systems have substantially altered the basin's natural response to rainfall. Urbanization of a natural watershed progresses in one of two ways. First, the addition of impervious surfaces in the form of roads, streets, parking lots and roofs will prevent infiltration of rainfall into the covered soil surface, thus increasing the total volume and peak rate of runoff from a given rainfall volume. Second, to protect the now valuable property in a developed watershed from this increased peak and volume of runoff, storm drainage systems are installed. The installation of a storm drainage system does not increase the volume of runoff, but modifies the time distribution of runoff. Thus, when storm water drainage systems are installed, the time of concentration of the watershed is decreased. Therefore, storm water drainage systems have the effect of removing a given volume of runoff in a shorter period of time, thus increasing the peak rate of runoff. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===749.6.2.1 Equations=== | ||
+ | Peak discharges can be estimated at urban locations using the equations presented in the Urban Regression Equations table, below. The Equations give peak discharge as a function of drainage area (A) and percentage of impervious area (I). | ||
− | + | All hydraulic design in urban areas should consider the effect of increasing development throughout the projected life of the structure. Information on planned future development may be available from local agencies. | |
− | + | The range of valid data for USGS Urban Regression Equations are: | |
− | + | :a) Drainage Area – 0.28 mi<sup>2</sup> to 189 mi<sup>2</sup> | |
+ | :b) Impervious Area - 2.3% to 46% | ||
− | < | + | <center> |
− | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | + | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" |
− | |+ ''' | + | |+ ''' Urban Regression Equations''' |
− | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Freq. !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Magnitude !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Std. Error of | + | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Freq.<br/>(years) !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Flood Magnitude<br/>ft<sup>3</sup>/s !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Std. Error of Prediction<br/>(%) |
|- | |- | ||
− | + | |align="center"| 2 ||align="center"| 188A<sup>0.599</sup>10<sup>0.014(I)</sup> ||align="center"| -23.1 to 30.0 | |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |align="center"|5 ||align="center"| 352A<sup>0.592</sup>10<sup>0.011(I)</sup>|| align="center"| -20.6 to 25.9 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |align="center"|10||align="center"| 484A<sup>0.594</sup>10<sup>0.010(I)</sup>|| align="center"| -19.6 to 24.4 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |align="center"|25|| align="center"| 671A<sup>0.599</sup>10<sup>0.008(I)</sup>|| align="center"| -19.6 to 24.4 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |align="center"|50|| align="center"| 826A<sup>0.604</sup>10<sup>0.008(I)</sup>|| align="center"| -20.6 to 25.9 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |align="center"|100||align="center"| 991A<sup>0.608</sup>10<sup>0.007(I)</sup>||align="center"| -22.3 to 28.7 |
|- | |- | ||
− | | | + | |align="center"|500||align="center"| 1,420A<sup>0.619</sup>10<sup>0.006(I)</sup>||align="center"| -28.9 to 40.7 |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan=" | + | |colspan="3" align="left"|Source: Southard (2010) |
− | |} | + | |} |
+ | </center> | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===749.6.2.2 Drainage Area=== | ||
+ | Drainage area (A) in mi<sup>2</sup>, can be obtained by determining the area contributing surface flows to the site as outlined along the drainage divide on the best available topographic maps or computer program. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===749.6.2.3 Percentage of Impervious Area=== | ||
+ | The percentage of impervious area (I) is the portion of the drainage area that is impervious because of buildings, parking lots, streets and roads, and other impervious areas within an urban basin. The variable, I, is determined from the best available maps, satellite imagery or aerial photos showing impervious surfaces. Field inspection to supplement the imagery may be useful. | ||
− | + | ===749.6.2.4 Limitations of Equations=== | |
− | The USGS Urban Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most urban Missouri streams within the limits | + | The USGS Urban Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most urban Missouri streams within the limits noted in [[#749.6.2.1 Equations |EPG 749.6.2.1 Equations]] provided that the floodflows are relatively unaffected by manmade works such as dams or diversions. |
− | + | =749.7 Historical USGS Stream Gage Data= | |
Numerous USGS recording stream gages have been maintained for many years on selected Missouri streams. For proposed structures at or near one of these gages, the gage data can be used in estimating discharge. When sufficient years of data have been collected at a stream gage, the data may be statistically analyzed to estimate discharge for the selected design flood frequency. | Numerous USGS recording stream gages have been maintained for many years on selected Missouri streams. For proposed structures at or near one of these gages, the gage data can be used in estimating discharge. When sufficient years of data have been collected at a stream gage, the data may be statistically analyzed to estimate discharge for the selected design flood frequency. | ||
Stream gage data is available on the Internet at [http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mo/nwis/ http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mo/nwis/]. | Stream gage data is available on the Internet at [http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mo/nwis/ http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mo/nwis/]. | ||
+ | ==749.7.1 Analysis== | ||
Gage data is analyzed by Log-Pearson Type III regression analysis to determine the discharges associated with the relevant return periods. See Water Resources Council Bulletin #17B in [[750.3 Bridges#750.3.1.9 List of References|References]] for details on this analysis method. A computer program for the analysis is available. | Gage data is analyzed by Log-Pearson Type III regression analysis to determine the discharges associated with the relevant return periods. See Water Resources Council Bulletin #17B in [[750.3 Bridges#750.3.1.9 List of References|References]] for details on this analysis method. A computer program for the analysis is available. | ||
− | One statistical parameter computed in the Log Pearson analysis is the skew coefficient of the distribution of the stream gage data. Skew coefficients for the data from stream gages in Missouri are typically between -0.1 and -0.4 when sufficient years of record are available. Skew coefficients outside this range may indicate an insufficient length of record or an analysis affected by outliers in the data. In this case, other methods of determining discharges will likely provide better estimates. | + | One statistical parameter computed in the Log-Pearson analysis is the skew coefficient of the distribution of the stream gage data. Skew coefficients for the data from stream gages in Missouri are typically between -0.1 and -0.4 when sufficient years of record are available. Skew coefficients outside this range may indicate an insufficient length of record or an analysis affected by outliers in the data. In this case, other methods of determining discharges will likely provide better estimates. |
+ | ==749.7.2 Ungaged Sites Near Stream Gage== | ||
Stream gage data from gages at some distance from the site on the same watershed and stream gage data from nearby hydrologically similar watersheds may also be used to estimate discharges. Discharges obtained from this type of data should be compared with discharges obtained by other methods and not given the same weight as discharges obtained from data from a stream gage at the proposed site. Better estimates of discharge using this method may be obtained by repeating the procedure for several nearby gages and averaging the results. This method should not be used when drainage areas differ by more than 50% or at sites more than 50 miles from the stream gage(s). | Stream gage data from gages at some distance from the site on the same watershed and stream gage data from nearby hydrologically similar watersheds may also be used to estimate discharges. Discharges obtained from this type of data should be compared with discharges obtained by other methods and not given the same weight as discharges obtained from data from a stream gage at the proposed site. Better estimates of discharge using this method may be obtained by repeating the procedure for several nearby gages and averaging the results. This method should not be used when drainage areas differ by more than 50% or at sites more than 50 miles from the stream gage(s). | ||
− | Transposition of discharges from one basin to another, or from one location to another within the same watershed, is accomplished using the following equation: | + | Transposition of discharges from one basin to another, or from one location to another within the same watershed, is accomplished using the following Area-Weighting equation: |
:<math>Q_1=Q_2\left(\frac{A_1}{A_2}\right)^k</math> | :<math>Q_1=Q_2\left(\frac{A_1}{A_2}\right)^k</math> | ||
Line 459: | Line 653: | ||
:where: | :where: | ||
− | :Q1 = discharge for drainage basin | + | :Q1 = discharge for ungaged drainage basin (cfs) |
− | :A1 = drainage area for drainage basin | + | :A1 = drainage area for ungaged drainage basin (mi<sup>2</sup>) |
− | :Q2 = discharge for drainage basin | + | :Q2 = discharge for gaged drainage basin (cfs) |
− | :A2 = drainage area for drainage basin | + | :A2 = drainage area for gaged drainage basin (mi<sup>2</sup>) |
− | :k = exponent = 0.5 | + | :k = exponent = see table |
+ | |||
+ | <center> | ||
+ | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" | ||
+ | |+ ''' Drainage-Area Ratio Exponent, ''k''''' | ||
+ | ! style="background:#BEBEBE" width="170"|Flood Freq.<br/>(years) !! style="background:#BEBEBE" width="130"|Region I !! style="background:#BEBEBE" width="130"|Region II !! style="background:#BEBEBE" width="130"|Region III | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"| 2 ||align="center"|0.580||align="center"| 0.654||align="center"| 0.665 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|5||align="center"| 0.557||align="center"| 0.643||align="center"| 0.681 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|10||align="center"| 0.546||align="center"| 0.637||align="center"| 0.689 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|25||align="center"| 0.536||align="center"| 0.632||align="center"| 0.698 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|50||align="center"| 0.529||align="center"| 0.629||align="center"| 0.703 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|100||align="center"| 0.524||align="center"| 0.626||align="center"| 0.708 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|200||align="center"| 0.520||align="center"| 0.625||align="center"| 0.713 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |align="center"|500||align="center"| 0.515||align="center"| 0.623||align="center"| 0.718 | ||
+ | |- | ||
+ | |colspan="4"|Source: Southard and Veilleux (2014) | ||
+ | |} | ||
+ | </center> | ||
− | + | =749.8 NFIP Flood Insurance Study Discharges= | |
− | NFIP Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) typically include estimates of 10-, 50-, 100- and 500-year discharges for streams studied by detailed methods. These discharges may be more accurate than those obtained by other methods if the FIS discharges were determined through a detailed hydrologic study, such as an HEC-1 or TR-20 hydrologic model. In some instances, the FIS discharges may have been determined using an older version of the USGS regression equations. | + | NFIP Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) typically include estimates of 10-, 50-, 100- and 500-year discharges for streams studied by detailed methods. These discharges may be more accurate than those obtained by other methods if the FIS discharges were determined through a detailed hydrologic study, such as an HEC-1, HEC-HMS or TR-20 hydrologic model. In some instances, the FIS discharges may have been determined using an older version of the USGS regression equations. Engineering judgment should be exercised to determine if the FIS discharges determined from older USGS regression equations should be used for the hydraulic design. When a No-Rise Certificate is required, and the FIS discharges are not used for hydraulic design, the 100-year FIS discharge should be used to verify the no-rise condition based on the Base Flood elevations in the FIS. Careful review of the FIS report will disclose the level of detail used in the hydrologic study. |
− | + | =749.9 Flood Hydrographs= | |
− | For certain design problems it may be necessary to determine flood hydrographs associated with the peak discharge for a desired frequency. A hydrograph gives flow rate as a function of time at a particular location in a watershed, usually at the watershed outlet | + | For certain design problems it may be necessary to determine flood hydrographs associated with the peak discharge for a desired frequency. A hydrograph gives flow rate as a function of time at a particular location in a watershed, usually at the watershed outlet. |
− | + | ==749.9.1 NRCS Unit Hydrograph== | |
− | Techniques developed by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for calculating rates of runoff require the same basic data as the Rational Method: drainage area, a runoff factor, time of concentration, and rainfall information. The | + | Techniques developed by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for calculating rates of runoff require the same basic data as the Rational Method: drainage area, a runoff factor, time of concentration, and rainfall information. The NRCS method is more sophisticated in that it considers also the time distribution of rainfall, the initial rainfall losses to interception and depression storage, and an infiltration rate that decreases during the course of a storm. The NRCS Unit Hydrograph method is applicable for all watersheds between 6.4 and 16,000 acres. Additional details on the NRCS methodology can be found in the ''National Engineering Handbook'', (NEH), Part 630, Chapter 10 and Chapter 16(USDA/NRCS). |
− | + | ===749.9.1.1 Rainfall-Runoff Equation and Concepts=== | |
− | The | + | The NRCS method is based on a 24-hour storm event. NRCS has developed four synthetic rainfall distributions typical of storms for various geographical regions in the United States. The Type II distribution is the appropriate distribution for using the NRCS method in Missouri. |
− | The | + | The NRCS rainfall-runoff equation was developed by the NRCS from experimental plots for numerous soil types and vegetative cover conditions. The experimental data consisted mainly of daily rainfall totals on small watersheds, and did not include information on the time distribution of rainfall. The NRCS rainfall-runoff equation is therefore used to estimate the depth of runoff resulting from a given depth of 24-hour rainfall assumed to be spatially distributed uniformly over the watershed. The equation is given by: |
− | :<math>Q=\frac{(P-I_a)^2}{(P-I_a)+S}</math> | + | :<math>Q=\frac{(P-I_a)^2}{(P-I_a)+S}</math> |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 494: | Line 713: | ||
The potential maximum retention, S, is a measure of the maximum amount of water a given watershed could retain, and is a function of land use, interception capacity, infiltration capacity, depression storage, and antecedent moisture. A relationship between Ia and S was also developed from experimental data: | The potential maximum retention, S, is a measure of the maximum amount of water a given watershed could retain, and is a function of land use, interception capacity, infiltration capacity, depression storage, and antecedent moisture. A relationship between Ia and S was also developed from experimental data: | ||
− | :<math>I_a=0.2S\,</math> | + | :<math>I_a=0.2S\,</math> |
− | Substituting the equation for I<sub>a</sub> into equation | + | Substituting the equation for I<sub>a</sub> into the equation above, the NRCS rainfall-runoff equation becomes: |
− | :<math>Q=\frac{(P-0.2S)^2}{P+0.8S}</math> | + | :<math>Q=\frac{(P-0.2S)^2}{P+0.8S}</math> |
It is important to note that while both P and Q are given in units of depth, they actually represent volumes of rainfall and runoff, respectively. This is because the indicated depth of rainfall or runoff is assumed to be applied uniformly to the entire watershed area. | It is important to note that while both P and Q are given in units of depth, they actually represent volumes of rainfall and runoff, respectively. This is because the indicated depth of rainfall or runoff is assumed to be applied uniformly to the entire watershed area. | ||
− | The | + | The NRCS made additional empirical analyses to estimate the value of S for various watersheds. The principal physical characteristics affecting the relationship between rainfall and runoff are land use, land treatment, soil types and land slope. These characteristics which affect the maximum potential retention are represented by a runoff factor called the curve number (CN), which is related to S by: |
− | :<math>S=\frac{1000}{CN}-10</math> | + | :<math>S=\frac{1000}{CN}-10</math> |
− | The curve number is an index that represents the combination of hydrologic soil group, land use, hydrologic condition, and antecedent moisture condition. The table(s) below, Runoff Curve Numbers, provide curve numbers for different land uses, treatments and hydrologic conditions; separate values are given for each soil group. The | + | The curve number is an index that represents the combination of hydrologic soil group, land use, hydrologic condition, and antecedent moisture condition. The table(s) below, Runoff Curve Numbers, provide curve numbers for different land uses, treatments and hydrologic conditions; separate values are given for each soil group. The NRCS provides methods of adjusting the curve numbers based on varying antecedent moisture conditions; however, for design purposes, average antecedent moisture conditions are normally assumed and the values given in the table can therefore be used for design. |
<div id="Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas"></div> | <div id="Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas"></div> | ||
Line 517: | Line 736: | ||
| colspan="6" text align="center"| ''Fully Developed Urban Areas (Vegetation Established)'' | | colspan="6" text align="center"| ''Fully Developed Urban Areas (Vegetation Established)'' | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="6"| Open Space (lawns, parks, golf courses, | + | | colspan="6"| Open Space (lawns, parks, golf courses, cemeteries, etc.)<sup>3</sup> |
|- | |- | ||
| text align="center"| Poor Condition (grass cover<50%) || ||68 ||79 ||86 ||89 | | text align="center"| Poor Condition (grass cover<50%) || ||68 ||79 ||86 ||89 | ||
Line 575: | Line 794: | ||
| colspan="6"| Idle Lands (CNs are determined using cover types similar to those in [[#Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas|Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas]] | | colspan="6"| Idle Lands (CNs are determined using cover types similar to those in [[#Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas|Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas]] | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="6 | + | | colspan="6" | <sup>1</sup>Average runoff condition, and I<sub>a</sub>=0.2S |
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="6 | + | | colspan="6" | <sup>2</sup>The average percent impervious area shown was used to develp the composite CNs. Other assumptions are as follows: impervious areas are directly connected to the drainage system, impervious areas have a CN of 98, and pervious areas are considered equivalent to open space in good hydrologic condition. If the impervious area is not connected, the NRCS method has an adjustment to reduce the effect. |
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="6 | + | | colspan="6" | <sup>3</sup>CNs shown are equivalent to those of pasture. Composite CNs may be computed for other combinations of open space cover type. |
|} | |} | ||
Line 655: | Line 874: | ||
| Good|| 51 ||67 ||76 ||80 | | Good|| 51 ||67 ||76 ||80 | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="7 | + | | colspan="7" | <sup>1</sup>Average runoff condition, and I<sub>a</sub>=0.2S |
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="7 | + | | colspan="7" | <sup>2</sup>Crop residue cover applies only if residue is on at least 5% of the surface throughout the year. |
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="7 | + | | colspan="7" | <sup>3</sup>Hydrologic condition is based on a combination of factors that affect infiltration and runoff, including (a) density and canopy of vegetative areas, (b) amount of year-round cover, (c) amount of grass or closed-seeded legumes in rotations, (d) percent of residue cover on the land surface (good>20%) and (e) degree of roughness. |
Poor: Factors impair infiltration and tend to increase runoff. | Poor: Factors impair infiltration and tend to increase runoff. | ||
Line 700: | Line 919: | ||
|Farmsteads - Buildings, Lanes, Driveways and Surrounding Lots || || 59 ||74 ||82 ||86 | |Farmsteads - Buildings, Lanes, Driveways and Surrounding Lots || || 59 ||74 ||82 ||86 | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="6 | + | | colspan="6" | <sup>1</sup>Average runoff condition, and I<sub>a</sub>=0.2S |
|- | |- | ||
− | | colspan="6 | + | | colspan="6" | <sup>2</sup>Poor: <50% ground cover or heavily grazed with no mulch |
Fair: 50 to 74% ground cover | Fair: 50 to 74% ground cover | ||
Line 708: | Line 927: | ||
Good: >75% ground cover and lightly or only occasionally grazed | Good: >75% ground cover and lightly or only occasionally grazed | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="6 | + | |colspan="6" |<sup>3</sup>Poor: <50% gound cover |
Fair: 50 to 75% ground cover | Fair: 50 to 75% ground cover | ||
Line 714: | Line 933: | ||
Good: >75% ground cover | Good: >75% ground cover | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="6 | + | |colspan="6" |<sup>4</sup>Actual curve number is less than 30; use CN=30 for runoff computations. |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="6 | + | |colspan="6" |<sup>5</sup>CNs shown were computed for areas with 50% grass (pasture) cover. Other combinations of conditions may be computed from CNs for woods and pasture. |
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="6 | + | |colspan="6" |<sup>6</sup>Poor: Forest litter, small trees and brush are destroyed by heavy grazing or regular burning. |
Fair: Woods grazed but not burned, and some forest litter covers the soil. | Fair: Woods grazed but not burned, and some forest litter covers the soil. | ||
Line 725: | Line 944: | ||
|} | |} | ||
− | + | ===749.9.1.2 NRCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph=== | |
− | The | + | The NRCS unit hydrograph was developed based on analysis of a large number of natural unit hydrographs from a wide range of drainage basin sizes and geographic locations. The NRCS unit hydrograph is given in a dimensionless form and provides a standard unit hydrograph shape. |
+ | <center> | ||
{| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" style="text-align:center" | {| border="1" class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto" style="text-align:center" | ||
− | |+ ''' | + | |+ '''NRCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph''' |
− | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio !!style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio !!style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio | + | ! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio !!style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio !!style="background:#BEBEBE"|Time Ratio !! style="background:#BEBEBE"|Discharge Ratio |
|- | |- | ||
− | ! t/ | + | !t/T<sub>p</sub> !! q/q<sub>p</sub> !! t/T<sub>p</sub> !! q/q<sub>p</sub> !!t/T<sub>p</sub> !! q/q<sub>p</sub> !!t/T<sub>p</sub> !! q/q<sub>p</sub> |
|- | |- | ||
|0.0||0.000||0.9||0.990||1.8||0.390||3.4||0.029 | |0.0||0.000||0.9||0.990||1.8||0.390||3.4||0.029 | ||
Line 752: | Line 972: | ||
|0.8||0.930||1.7||0.460||3.2||0.040|| || | |0.8||0.930||1.7||0.460||3.2||0.040|| || | ||
|- | |- | ||
− | |colspan="8 | + | |colspan="8" |''Source'': McCuen (1996) |
|} | |} | ||
+ | </center> | ||
− | Use of the | + | Use of the NRCS unit hydrograph requires calculation of the unit hydrograph peak discharge and the time to peak. The unit hydrograph peak discharge is given by: |
− | :<math> | + | :<math>q_p=\frac{484AQ}{T_p}</math> |
:where: | :where: | ||
− | : | + | :q<sub>p</sub> = unit hydrograph peak discharge, cfs |
− | |||
:A = drainage area, mi<sup>2</sup> | :A = drainage area, mi<sup>2</sup> | ||
− | : | + | :Q = runoff in inches |
+ | :T<sub>p</sub> = time to peak, hrs | ||
The time to peak is assumed to be equal to the basin lag time plus one-half the duration of rainfall. Basin lag time is estimated as 0.6 times the time of concentration, leading to the following equation for time to peak: | The time to peak is assumed to be equal to the basin lag time plus one-half the duration of rainfall. Basin lag time is estimated as 0.6 times the time of concentration, leading to the following equation for time to peak: | ||
− | :<math> | + | :<math>\frac{\Delta D}{2}+0.6T_c = T_p</math> |
:where: | :where: | ||
:t<sub>p</sub> = time to peak, hrs | :t<sub>p</sub> = time to peak, hrs | ||
− | : | + | :ΔD = duration of rainfall (unit hydrograph duration) = 0.133 t<sub>c</sub>, hrs |
:t<sub>c</sub> = time of concentration, hrs | :t<sub>c</sub> = time of concentration, hrs | ||
− | + | ===749.9.1.3 Application of NRCS Methodology=== | |
Unit hydrograph theory depends on the principles of linearity and superposition. Given a unit hydrograph, the runoff hydrograph for a runoff depth other than unity can be obtained by multiplying the unit hydrograph ordinates by the runoff depth using the principle of linearity. The flood hydrograph for a particular storm event can be obtained by dividing the storm event into incremental periods of runoff, then applying the unit hydrograph to each incremental runoff and summing the resulting hydrographs together using the principle of superposition to obtain the total runoff hydrograph. | Unit hydrograph theory depends on the principles of linearity and superposition. Given a unit hydrograph, the runoff hydrograph for a runoff depth other than unity can be obtained by multiplying the unit hydrograph ordinates by the runoff depth using the principle of linearity. The flood hydrograph for a particular storm event can be obtained by dividing the storm event into incremental periods of runoff, then applying the unit hydrograph to each incremental runoff and summing the resulting hydrographs together using the principle of superposition to obtain the total runoff hydrograph. | ||
− | The unit hydrograph duration (and the corresponding duration of the period of incremental runoff used in applying the unit hydrograph method) is estimated as 0.133t<sub>c</sub>. Since the | + | The unit hydrograph duration (and the corresponding duration of the period of incremental runoff used in applying the unit hydrograph method) is estimated as 0.133t<sub>c</sub>. Since the NRCS Type II rainfall distribution has a 24-hour time base, application of the NRCS unit hydrograph methodology to typical watersheds by hand requires calculation of runoff hydrographs for a large number of increments. This can be cumbersome and time-consuming and a computer-based implementation is recommended. |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | =749.10 Detention Storage= | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
The traditional purpose of storm drainage systems has been to collect and convey storm runoff as rapidly as possible to a suitable location where it can be discharged. As areas urbanize this type of design may result in major drainage and flooding problems downstream. Under favorable conditions, the temporary storage of some of the storm runoff can decrease downstream flows and often the cost of the downstream conveyance system. Detention storage facilities can range from small facilities contained in parking lots or other on-site facilities to large lakes and reservoirs. This article provides general procedures for detention storage analysis. | The traditional purpose of storm drainage systems has been to collect and convey storm runoff as rapidly as possible to a suitable location where it can be discharged. As areas urbanize this type of design may result in major drainage and flooding problems downstream. Under favorable conditions, the temporary storage of some of the storm runoff can decrease downstream flows and often the cost of the downstream conveyance system. Detention storage facilities can range from small facilities contained in parking lots or other on-site facilities to large lakes and reservoirs. This article provides general procedures for detention storage analysis. | ||
An easement must be purchased for any land, outside of the right of way, that will be flooded by water from a detention storage structure. | An easement must be purchased for any land, outside of the right of way, that will be flooded by water from a detention storage structure. | ||
− | + | ==749.10.1 Data Needs== | |
The following data will be needed to complete storage calculations. | The following data will be needed to complete storage calculations. | ||
− | *Inflow hydrograph for all selected design storms. The inflow hydrograph for the detention basin can be determined using the methods in [[#749. | + | *Inflow hydrograph for all selected design storms. The inflow hydrograph for the detention basin can be determined using the methods in [[#749.9 Flood Hydrographs|Flood Hydrographs]]. |
*Stage-storage curve for storage facility. | *Stage-storage curve for storage facility. | ||
*Stage-discharge curve for the facility. | *Stage-discharge curve for the facility. | ||
Line 875: | Line 1,016: | ||
Using these data, the inflow hydrograph is routed through the storage facility to develop the outflow hydrograph. | Using these data, the inflow hydrograph is routed through the storage facility to develop the outflow hydrograph. | ||
− | + | ===749.10.1.1 Stage-Storage Curve=== | |
A stage-storage curve defines the relationship between the depth of water and storage volume in a reservoir. The data for this type of curve are usually developed using a topographic map and the conic formula for irregular shaped basins, or the prismoidal formula for trapezoidal basins. The conic formula is expressed as: | A stage-storage curve defines the relationship between the depth of water and storage volume in a reservoir. The data for this type of curve are usually developed using a topographic map and the conic formula for irregular shaped basins, or the prismoidal formula for trapezoidal basins. The conic formula is expressed as: | ||
− | :<math>V_{1,2}=\frac{1}{3}d\left(A_1+A_2+\sqrt{A_1A_2}\right)</math> (Equation | + | :<math>V_{1,2}=\frac{1}{3}d\left(A_1+A_2+\sqrt{A_1A_2}\right)</math> (Equation 1) |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 889: | Line 1,030: | ||
The prismoidal formula for trapezoidal basins is expressed as: | The prismoidal formula for trapezoidal basins is expressed as: | ||
− | :<math>V=LWD+(L+W)ZD^2\frac{4}{3}Z^2D^3</math> (Equation | + | :<math>V=LWD+(L+W)ZD^2\frac{4}{3}Z^2D^3</math> (Equation 2) |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 899: | Line 1,040: | ||
:Z = side slope factor, ratio of horizontal to vertical | :Z = side slope factor, ratio of horizontal to vertical | ||
− | + | ===749.10.1.2 Stage-Discharge Curve=== | |
A stage-discharge curve defines the relationship between the depth of water and the discharge or outflow from a storage facility. If the detention facility has both principal and emergency spillways the stage-discharge curve should take both into account. The following equations can be used to help develop the stage-discharge curve. | A stage-discharge curve defines the relationship between the depth of water and the discharge or outflow from a storage facility. If the detention facility has both principal and emergency spillways the stage-discharge curve should take both into account. The following equations can be used to help develop the stage-discharge curve. | ||
Line 907: | Line 1,048: | ||
A sharp-crested weir with no end contractions is illustrated in [[Media:749 Weir Configurations.pdf|Weir Configurations]]. The discharge equation for this configuration is (Chow, 1959): | A sharp-crested weir with no end contractions is illustrated in [[Media:749 Weir Configurations.pdf|Weir Configurations]]. The discharge equation for this configuration is (Chow, 1959): | ||
− | :English: <math>Q=\left[3.27+0.4\left(\frac{H}{H_c}\right)\right]LH^{1.5}</math> (Equation | + | :English: <math>Q=\left[3.27+0.4\left(\frac{H}{H_c}\right)\right]LH^{1.5}</math> (Equation 3) |
− | :Metric: <math>Q=0.55\left[3.27+0.4\left(\frac{H}{H_c}\right)\right]LH^{1.5}</math> (Equation | + | :Metric: <math>Q=0.55\left[3.27+0.4\left(\frac{H}{H_c}\right)\right]LH^{1.5}</math> (Equation 4) |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 920: | Line 1,061: | ||
A sharp-crested weir with two end contractions is illustrated in [[Media:749 Weir Configurations.pdf|Weir Configurations]]. The discharge equation for this configuration is (Chow, 1959): | A sharp-crested weir with two end contractions is illustrated in [[Media:749 Weir Configurations.pdf|Weir Configurations]]. The discharge equation for this configuration is (Chow, 1959): | ||
− | :English: <math>Q=\left[3.27+0.4\left(\frac{H}{H_c}\right)\right](L-0.2H)H^{1.5}</math> ( | + | :English: <math>Q=\left[3.27+0.4\left(\frac{H}{H_c}\right)\right](L-0.2H)H^{1.5}</math> (Equation 5) |
− | |||
− | |||
:where: Variables are the same as for the previous equation. | :where: Variables are the same as for the previous equation. | ||
Line 928: | Line 1,067: | ||
A sharp-crested weir will be affected by submergence when the tailwater rises above the weir crest elevation. The result will be that the discharge over the weir will be reduced. The discharge equation for a sharp-crested submerged weir is (Brater and King, 1976): | A sharp-crested weir will be affected by submergence when the tailwater rises above the weir crest elevation. The result will be that the discharge over the weir will be reduced. The discharge equation for a sharp-crested submerged weir is (Brater and King, 1976): | ||
− | :<math>Q_s=Q_f\left[1-\left(\frac{H_2}{H_1}\right)^{1.5}\right]^{0.385}</math> (Equation | + | :<math>Q_s=Q_f\left[1-\left(\frac{H_2}{H_1}\right)^{1.5}\right]^{0.385}</math> (Equation 6) |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 940: | Line 1,079: | ||
The equation generally used for the broad-crested weir is (Brater and King, 1976): | The equation generally used for the broad-crested weir is (Brater and King, 1976): | ||
− | :English: <math>Q=CLH^{1.5}\,</math> (Equation | + | :English: <math>Q=CLH^{1.5}\,</math> (Equation 7) |
− | |||
− | |||
:where: Q = discharge, ft<sup>3</sup>/s | :where: Q = discharge, ft<sup>3</sup>/s | ||
− | :C = broad-crested weir coefficient (see [[Media:749 Broad-Crested Weir Coefficients.pdf|Broad-Crested Weir Coefficients]] | + | :C = broad-crested weir coefficient (see [[Media:749 Broad-Crested Weir Coefficients.pdf|Broad-Crested Weir Coefficients]]) |
:L = broad-crested weir length, ft | :L = broad-crested weir length, ft | ||
:H = head above weir crest, ft., measured at least 2.5H upstream of the weir | :H = head above weir crest, ft., measured at least 2.5H upstream of the weir | ||
Line 954: | Line 1,091: | ||
A V-Notch weir is illustrated in [[Media:749 Weir Configurations.pdf|Weir Configurations]]. The discharge through a v-notch weir can be calculated from the following equation (Brater and King, 1976): | A V-Notch weir is illustrated in [[Media:749 Weir Configurations.pdf|Weir Configurations]]. The discharge through a v-notch weir can be calculated from the following equation (Brater and King, 1976): | ||
− | :English: <math>Q=2.5tan\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)H^{2.5}</math> (Equation | + | :English: <math>Q=2.5tan\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)H^{2.5}</math> (Equation 8) |
− | |||
− | |||
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 966: | Line 1,101: | ||
Pipes smaller than 12 in. may be analyzed as a submerged orifice if H/D is greater than 1.5. For square-edged entrance conditions, | Pipes smaller than 12 in. may be analyzed as a submerged orifice if H/D is greater than 1.5. For square-edged entrance conditions, | ||
− | :English: <math>Q=0.6A(2gH)^{0.5}=3.78D^2H^{0.5}\,</math> (Equation | + | :English: <math>Q=0.6A(2gH)^{0.5}=3.78D^2H^{0.5}\,</math> (Equation 9) |
− | |||
− | |||
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 981: | Line 1,114: | ||
If culverts are used as outlets works, procedures presented in the [[750.2 Culverts|Culverts]] should be used to develop stage-discharge data. | If culverts are used as outlets works, procedures presented in the [[750.2 Culverts|Culverts]] should be used to develop stage-discharge data. | ||
− | + | ==749.10.2 Routing Calculations== | |
The following procedure is used to perform routing through a reservoir or storage facility (Storage Indication or Puhls Method of storage routing). | The following procedure is used to perform routing through a reservoir or storage facility (Storage Indication or Puhls Method of storage routing). | ||
Routing a flood through a reservoir results in an attenuation of the peak of the inflow hydrograph and an associated change in timing of the peak. Storage of flood waters within the reservoir causes the peak outflow from the reservoir to be lower than the peak inflow, and causes the peak outflow to occur at a later time than the peak inflow. The continuity equation relates the change of storage within the detention storage basin to the inflow and outflow for the basin: | Routing a flood through a reservoir results in an attenuation of the peak of the inflow hydrograph and an associated change in timing of the peak. Storage of flood waters within the reservoir causes the peak outflow from the reservoir to be lower than the peak inflow, and causes the peak outflow to occur at a later time than the peak inflow. The continuity equation relates the change of storage within the detention storage basin to the inflow and outflow for the basin: | ||
− | <math>I-O=\frac{\Delta S}{\Delta T}</math> (Equation | + | <math>I-O=\frac{\Delta S}{\Delta T}</math> (Equation 10) |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 997: | Line 1,130: | ||
The Storage Indication method of reservoir routing uses a simple finite-difference form of the continuity equation. For any two points in time, the continuity equation can be written as: | The Storage Indication method of reservoir routing uses a simple finite-difference form of the continuity equation. For any two points in time, the continuity equation can be written as: | ||
− | :<math>\Big(\frac{2S_{n+1}}{\Delta T}+O_{n+1}\Big)=(I_n+I_{n+1})+\Big(\frac{2S_n}{\Delta T}-O_n\Big)</math> (Equation | + | :<math>\Big(\frac{2S_{n+1}}{\Delta T}+O_{n+1}\Big)=(I_n+I_{n+1})+\Big(\frac{2S_n}{\Delta T}-O_n\Big)</math> (Equation 11) |
:where: | :where: | ||
Line 1,003: | Line 1,136: | ||
:S = storage | :S = storage | ||
− | If the values at time step n are known, the only unknowns in equation | + | If the values at time step n are known, the only unknowns in equation 8 are on the left-hand side. |
Substituting | Substituting | ||
− | :<math>U_{n+1}=\frac{2S_{n+1}}{\Delta T}+O_{n+1}</math> (Equation | + | :<math>U_{n+1}=\frac{2S_{n+1}}{\Delta T}+O_{n+1}</math> (Equation 12) |
− | :<math>W_n=\frac{2S_n}{\Delta T}-O_n</math> (Equation | + | :<math>W_n=\frac{2S_n}{\Delta T}-O_n</math> (Equation 13) |
− | U is known as the Storage Indication Number. With these substitutions, equation | + | U is known as the Storage Indication Number. With these substitutions, equation 8 becomes: |
− | :<math>U_{n+1}=(I_n+I_{n+1})+W_n\,</math> (Equation | + | :<math>U_{n+1}=(I_n+I_{n+1})+W_n\,</math> (Equation 14) |
− | For the first time step, W<sub>n</sub> is calculated using the initial values of S and O, and equation | + | For the first time step, W<sub>n</sub> is calculated using the initial values of S and O, and equation 13. For subsequent time steps the following equation can be used as a shortcut. |
− | :<math>W_{n+1}=U_{n+1}-2O_{n+1}\,</math> (Equation | + | :<math>W_{n+1}=U_{n+1}-2O_{n+1}\,</math> (Equation 15) |
The procedure for using the storage-indication method of reservoir routing is as follows: | The procedure for using the storage-indication method of reservoir routing is as follows: | ||
− | + | :1) Develop an inflow hydrograph, stage-discharge curve, and stage-storage curve for the proposed storage facility. | |
− | + | ||
− | + | :2) Select a routing time period, t, to provide at least five points on the rising limb of the inflow hydrograph. | |
− | + | ||
− | + | :3) Use the stage-storage and stage-outflow data from Step 1 to develop a plot of U versus outflow. | |
− | + | ||
− | + | :4) Calculate W<sub>1</sub> using equation 22 and the initial values of S and O | |
− | + | ||
− | + | :5) Calculate U<sub>n+1</sub> using equation 23. | |
+ | |||
+ | :6) Using U<sub>n+1</sub> calculated in step 5 pick O<sub>n+1</sub> from the plot of U vs. outflow. | ||
+ | |||
+ | :7) Using U<sub>n+1</sub> and O<sub>n+1</sub> calculate W<sub>n+1</sub> using equation 24 | ||
+ | |||
+ | :8) Start over at step 5 with n = n+1. Continue repeating until inflow ceases or the outflow peak discharge has been determined. | ||
+ | |||
+ | :9) From the stage discharge curve, determine the stage for the peak outflow. | ||
+ | |||
+ | =749.11 Stream Confluences= | ||
+ | |||
+ | Water surface elevations at stream crossings near the confluence with another stream are often affected by backwater from the other stream. Several methods may be used to determine the water surface elevations at such crossings, such as: | ||
+ | |||
+ | :* Coincident Peaks (i.e., 100-yr event on both streams) | ||
+ | :* Exclusive Peaks (i.e., 100-yr event on one stream, no flow from other stream) | ||
+ | :* Flow Combinations (i.e., 86-yr Event on Main Reach, 62-yr Event on Tributary) | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.11.1 Coincident Peaks== | ||
+ | When both streams reach their peak flow, for a given return period, at the confluence of the streams at or near the same time the peak flows can be considered to happen at the same time. The water surface elevation of each stream is effected by the other. This method may provide overly conservative water surface elevations if applied to confluent streams that do not have similar peak times. | ||
+ | |||
+ | FEMA, ''Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard Mapping Partners'', Appendix C: Guidelines for Riverine Flood Analysis and Mapping gives the following guidance on when coincident peaks are appropriate to use: | ||
+ | |||
+ | [[image:749.11.1.jpg|center|750px]] | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.11.2 Exclusive Peaks== | ||
+ | |||
+ | Hydraulic analysis is conducted individually for each stream, for a given return period, without inclusion of any flow from the other stream, as each stream is assumed to reach its peak flow at different times. Analysis of the crossed stream will yield water surface elevations for the headwater flow of the crossed stream. If a structure is included in this model the effects of the structure on the water surface elevations will be included in the model. Analysis of the confluent stream will yield water surface elevations for the headwater flow of the confluent stream which can be used to determine the backwater surface elevation on the crossed stream. This backwater surface elevation does not include any effects from the flow of the crossed stream or any structures on the crossed stream. Since there would likely be some flow from the crossed stream this method may provide un-conservative water surface elevations in some cases. | ||
+ | |||
+ | This method is commonly used in hydraulic modeling for FEMA Flood Insurance Studies. | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==749.11.3 Flow Combinations== | ||
+ | |||
+ | Similar to Coincident Peaks this method accounts for effects of one streams water surface elevation on the other, but uses flows from different return periods for each stream. Using a combination of flows can more closely simulate actual flooding conditions; the difficulty is in selecting a flow combination that will mimic those conditions. A comparison of hydrographs of both watersheds to determine the maximum peak flow at a given return period, or the probability based procedure shown below may be used to estimate flow combinations. | ||
+ | |||
+ | For streams that are within the influence reach of the confluent streams backwater the procedure provided in [http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_w199.pdf NCHRP 199], ''Estimating Joint Probabilities of Design Coincident Flows at Stream Confluences'', produces a probability based estimate for combinations of return periods for confluent streams that will produce the maximum water surface elevation and/or velocity for a design flood event. An excerpt below from NCHRP 199 provides information on which cases this procedure is applicable to (Note: For Case A this procedure may still be useful to determine flow downstream of the junction based on flow combinations). | ||
+ | |||
+ | [[image:749.11.3.jpg|center|750px]] | ||
− | + | =749.12 References= | |
− | American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials | + | ''AASHTO, 2014 AASHTO Drainage Manual'', American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. |
− | + | Southard, R.E. and Veilleux, A.G.2014, ''Methods of Estimating Annual Exceedance-Probability Discharges and largest Recorded Floods for Unregulated Streams in Rural Missouri'', USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5165.0000 | |
− | + | Alexander T.W. and Wilson, G.L., 1995, ''Technique for Estimating the 2- to 500-Year Flood Discharges on Unregulated Streams in Rural Missouri'', USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4231 | |
− | + | Southard, R.E., 2010, ''Estimation of the Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Urban Basins in Missouri'', USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5073. | |
− | McCuen, | + | McCuen, R.H., et al., 2002 ''Highway Hydrology – Hydraulic Design Series No. 2'' (HDS-2), Federal Highway Administration, Publication No. FHWA-NHI-02-001 |
− | + | Ponce, V.M., 1989, ''Engineering Hydrology'', Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, Prentice-Hall, Inc. | |
− | + | United States Department of Agriculture: ''National Resource Conservation Service, National Engineering Handbook. NEH part 630 – Hydrology & Hydraulics '' | |
− | + | US Army Corps of Engineers, 2000, ''Hydrologic Modeling System HEC-HMS Technical Reference Manual'', Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, CA | |
− | + | Kilgore, R.T., et. al., 2013, ''Estimating Joint Probabilities of Design Coincident Flows at Stream Confluences'', NCHRP 199. | |
− | + | Roussel, M. C., et al, 2005. ''Time-Parameter Estimation for Applicable Texas Watersheds'', U.S. Geological Survey, Texas Water Science Center, Research Report No. 0-4696-2 | |
− | + | Cleveland, T. G., et al, 2012, ''Guidance for Estimation of Time of Concentration in Texas for Low-Slope Conditions'', Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas, Report No. 0-6382-P1 |
Latest revision as of 15:04, 23 April 2019
Contents
- 1 749.1 General
- 2 749.2 Design Frequency and Return Period
- 3 749.3 Design Data
- 4 749.4 Rural vs. Urban Hydrology
- 5 749.5 The Rational Method
- 5.1 749.5.1 Equation
- 5.2 749.5.2 Runoff Coefficient
- 5.3 749.5.3 Time of Concentration
- 5.4 749.5.4 Rainfall Intensity
- 6 749.6 USGS Regression Equations
- 7 749.7 Historical USGS Stream Gage Data
- 8 749.8 NFIP Flood Insurance Study Discharges
- 9 749.9 Flood Hydrographs
- 10 749.10 Detention Storage
- 11 749.11 Stream Confluences
- 12 749.12 References
749.1 General
Hydrology is that branch of the applied earth sciences which deals with the occurrence and distribution of surface and ground waters. Highway drainage design is concerned with the surface water hydrology of small watersheds. In particular, the peak rate of runoff and/or the runoff hydrograph produced by flood events are of interest in analysis of highway drainage problems. Peak runoff rates are a parameter of design and their estimation is a prerequisite to hydraulic computations. Flood hydrographs are a necessary parameter of stormwater detention basin design, which can be used to reduce peak runoff rates for design of certain highway drainage structures.
In general, the design of drainage facilities may be described as follows:
- Select the design frequency
- Estimate the peak rate of runoff or runoff hydrograph resulting from the design and review floods
- Design the drainage structure to pass the design flood peak or runoff hydrograph
- Check the hydraulic capacity of the proposed system for the base flood
- Check that the final design meets the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
Criteria for determination of the design flood frequency and methods for computing peak rates of runoff and runoff hydrographs are presented in this article.
749.2 Design Frequency and Return Period
The frequency of occurrence or return period of an event may be defined as the average period of time between events equal to or greater than a given magnitude. The annual probability of occurrence of an event is equal to the reciprocal of the event's return period. For example, a flood with a return period of 100 years has a 1% chance of occurring in any year; whereas a flood with a return period of 25 years has a 4% chance of occurring in any year.
749.2.1 Design Frequency Criteria
The return period used as a criterion of design is known as the design frequency. The design frequency to be used in the design of drainage structures is a function of roadway type (major or minor), traffic volume and type of drainage facility.
749.2.1.1 Crossroad Structures
The design flood magnitude, design frequencies and corresponding water surface elevation(s) shall be included on the project plans for all crossroad structures.
749.2.1.2 Roadside Ditches and Culverts
The design frequency for roadside drainage ditches should be selected based on the function served. Ditches with a primary function of removal of water from the pavement should be based on the design frequency of the pavement drainage. Ditches with a primary function of carrying water to or from a crossroad structure should be based on the design frequency of the crossroad structure.
Culverts not considered crossroad structures should be designed to the same frequency as the ditch.
749.2.1.3 Pavement Drainage
See EPG 640.1.2.1 Design Frequency.
749.2.1.4 Median Drainage
See EPG 640.2.3 Design Discharge.
749.2.2 Base Flood
The base flood is defined as the 100-year flood or the flood with a 1% chance of being exceeded in any given year.
After sizing a drainage facility using the design flood criteria, the ability of the proposed facility to pass the base (100-yr) flood shall also be evaluated, with special attention to any risks to people or property. This is done to ensure that there are no unexpected flood hazards inherent in the proposed facility for flood events exceeding the design discharge.
749.2.3 Overtopping Flood
The overtopping flood is defined as the discharge and corresponding return period and water surface elevation at which flow occurs over the roadway. The overtopping flood shall be determined for all crossroad structures. The resulting overtopping flood discharge and approximate return period shall be included on the project plans. When the overtopping flood is greater than the 100-year flood, the return period should be noted as “>100 yr”. If the overtopping flood is less than the 100-year flood, the magnitude and water surface elevation of the 100-year flood shall also be included on the project plans. For reporting overtopping for bridges, refer to EPG 750.3.2.4.5 Overtopping Discharge and Frequency.
749.2.4 National Flood Insurance Program Criteria
Meeting the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations can necessitate larger structures than those designed to meet the above design frequencies. The designer shall ensure that the final design meets all requirements of the NFIP. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) maps should be consulted to determine the applicable NFIP requirements.
See the following for definitions and additional information on the NFIP:
- Floodplain Management and the Regulatory Floodway for roadway construction
- National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) for structures
749.3 Design Data
In order to carry out the hydrologic analysis of a watershed, it is necessary to assemble certain data. This data includes the drainage area, the length of the hydraulically longest drainage path, the elevation of the watershed ridge, the elevation of the watershed outlet, the hydrologic soil group, the type of terrain, the land use of the watershed, and information on the extent of development in urban areas. The topographic data should be obtained from suitable maps when maps are available. Suitable maps are defined as department manuscripts and 7-1/2 or 15 minute USGS topographic maps or maps of equal quality. Only when such maps are not available should field measurements be made for the purpose of obtaining hydrologic information. The land use and terrain of the watershed should be evaluated in the field by the designer. The hydrologic soil group is either given on the soil survey performed by the Materials Division or is to be determined from county soil survey maps or from information from the soil survey and site visits.
749.4 Rural vs. Urban Hydrology
Small watersheds may be divided into rural and urban classifications.
Three methods are presented in this article for estimating peak rates of runoff from small watersheds. The Rational Method may be used on all watersheds smaller than 200 acres. On watersheds within the area limits shown in the table below, United States Geological Survey (USGS) Regression Equations may be used. The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Unit Hydrograph may also be used for drainage areas larger than 6.40 acres.
For more information on watershed area limits for the above methods see Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits table.
Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits
Calculation Method | Minimum Drainage Area | Maximum Drainage Area | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Rational Method | 0 | 200 acres | |||
NRCS Unit Hydrograph | 6.4 acres | 16,000 acres | |||
USGS Regression Equations | Rural | 2014 | Region I | 70.4 acres | >10,000 acres |
Region II | 108.8 acres | >10,000 acres | |||
Region III | 1,356.8 acres | >10,000 acres | |||
1995 | Region III | 307.2 acres | >10,000 acres | ||
Urban | 2010 | 180 acres | >10,000 acres |
749.4.1 Rural Watersheds
A rural watershed is a drainage basin whose natural response to rainfall has not been substantially altered by urban land activity. Rural watersheds may be either natural or agricultural.
The Rational Method may be used on rural watersheds smaller than 200 acres. On watersheds larger than 200 acres, the USGS Regression Equations should be used. The 2014 USGS Rural Regression Equations may be used for Watersheds that lie in Region I and Region II if the drainage area is greater than 70 acres and 110 acres respectively. Watersheds that lie within Region III for the 2014 USGS Rural Regression Equations and have drainage areas between 200 to 1350 acres do not fall within the limits for either set of equations. In this case one of the following approaches may be used:
- a. Use an alternate method such as Flood Hydrographs;
- b. for drainage areas greater than 300 acres use the 1995 USGS Rural Regression Equations;
- c. for drainage areas between 200 and 300 acres calculate the peak rate of runoff using the Rational Method and the 1995 USGS Rural Regression Equations, and use the one that is most appropriate.
The NRCS Unit Hydrograph may also be used for drainage areas larger than 6.40 acres.
For more information on watershed area limits for the above methods see Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits table.
749.4.2 Urban Watersheds
An urban watershed may be defined as a drainage basin in which manmade developments in the form of impervious surfaces and/or storm drainage systems have substantially altered the basin's natural response to rainfall. Urbanization of a natural watershed progresses in one of two ways. First, the addition of impervious surfaces in the form of roads, streets, parking lots and roofs will prevent infiltration of rainfall into the covered soil surface, thus increasing the total volume and peak rate of runoff from a given rainfall volume. Second, to protect the now valuable property in a developed watershed from this increased peak and volume of runoff, storm drainage systems are installed. The installation of a storm drainage system does not increase the volume of runoff, but modifies the time distribution of runoff. Thus, when storm water drainage systems are installed, the time of concentration of the watershed is decreased. Therefore, storm water drainage systems have the effect of removing a given volume of runoff in a shorter period of time, thus further increasing the peak rate of runoff.
All hydraulic design in urban areas should consider the effect of increasing development throughout the projected life of the structure. Information on planned future development may be available from local agencies.
The Rational Method should be used on urban watersheds smaller than 200 acres. On watersheds larger than 200 acres, the USGS Urban Regression Equations should be used. The NRCS Unit Hydrograph may also be used for drainage areas larger than 6.40 acres.
For more information on watershed area limits for the above methods see Summary of Small Watershed Peak Runoff Calculation Method Drainage Area Limits table.
749.5 The Rational Method
The Rational Method was developed as early as 1889, and despite its limitations is one of the most widely used methods of estimating peak flows. Several assumptions are implicit in application of the Rational Method:
- The maximum runoff rate occurs when the rainfall intensity lasts as long or longer than the time of concentration
- The frequency of the discharge is the same as that of the rainfall intensity
- The fraction of the rainfall that becomes runoff is independent of the rainfall intensity or volume
The first assumption implies that a homogeneous rainfall event is applied uniformly to the entire drainage area, and may not be valid for larger watersheds where constant rainfalls of high intensity do not occur simultaneously over the entire watershed. This assumption also provides the basis for using the watershed's time of concentration as the duration of the design storm. The second assumption again limits the size of the drainage area because for larger basins, factors other than rainfall frequency can play a large role in determining the flood frequency. Finally, the third assumption is reasonable for highly impervious areas, but less reasonable for pervious areas where the antecedent moisture condition plays a large role in determining the amount of rainfall that becomes surface runoff. For these reasons, use of the Rational Method is limited to small watersheds.
749.5.1 Equation
The Rational Method is expressed by the following formula.
- where:
- Q = the peak rate of runoff, ft^{3}/s
- k_{c}= 1.0
- C = runoff coefficient, representing the ratio of direct runoff to rainfall
- I = rainfall intensity of the design storm, in/hr
- A = drainage area of the watershed, acres
749.5.2 Runoff Coefficient
The runoff coefficient represents the ratio of runoff to the total rainfall and combines the effects of several watershed characteristics such as land use, soil type, cover condition, and general terrain or watershed slope.
749.5.2.1 Rural Runoff Coefficients
For rural watersheds, the soil type, land use, and terrain are used to determine runoff coefficients.
The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) has classified about 4,000 major soils found in the United States into four basic hydrologic groups as follows:
- Group A (Low runoff potential) - Soils having high infiltration rates even when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of deep, well-drained sands or gravels. These soils have a high rate of water transmission.
- Group B - Soils having moderate infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of moderately deep to deep, moderately well to well drained soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse textures. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission.
- Group C - Soils having slow infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of soils with a layer that impedes downward movement of water, or soils with moderately fine to fine texture. These soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
- Group D (High runoff potential) - Soils having very slow infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of clay soils with a high swelling potential, soils with a permanent high water table, soils with a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and shallow soils over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
The NRCS has performed modern soil surveys for many counties in Missouri, classifying the soils by a soil series name. The hydrologic soil group is given in the NRCS soil survey for these soils. If a modern soil survey map is not available for the county in question, the hydrologic soil group should be determined by the designer. This may be done by evaluating information available from the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division and/or from a site visit and choosing the appropriate hydrologic soil group from the descriptions given above. The district soils and geology technologist may provide assistance in determining the hydrologic soil group.
For smaller projects, the soil series name and hydrologic soil group for soils along the right of way are generally given on the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division. For larger projects, this soil survey does not name individual soil series, but rather gives "soil associations" along the right of way. These soil associations are groupings of soil series that have similar physical characteristics; however, the soils in an association may not have the same hydrologic soil group. Additionally, in many instances it will be necessary to determine a hydrologic soil group for soils located some distance from the right of way. In these cases, the hydrologic soil group should be determined by the designer from the NRCS county soil survey map, if available, or by evaluating information available from the soil survey performed by the Construction and Materials Division and/or from a site visit.
Land use and terrain can be determined by inspection of appropriate topographic maps or by a field inspection. After the hydrologic soil group, land use, and terrain have been determined, the runoff coefficient(s) to be used for estimating the 10-year peak flow for the rural watershed can be found in the following table.
Topography and Vegetation | NRCS Hydrologic Soil Group | |||
---|---|---|---|---|
A | B | C | D | |
Woodland: | ||||
Flat | 0.10 | 0.20 | 0.30 | 0.40 |
Rolling | 0.25 | 0.35 | 0.40 | 0.50 |
Hilly | 0.30 | 0.40 | 0.50 | 0.60 |
Pasture^{1}: | ||||
Flat | 0.10 | 0.20 | 0.30 | 0.40 |
Rolling | 0.16 | 0.30 | 0.40 | 0.55 |
Hilly | 0.22 | 0.32 | 0.42 | 0.60 |
Cultivated^{1}: | ||||
Flat | 0.30 | 0.40 | 0.50 | 0.60 |
Rolling | 0.40 | 0.50 | 0.60 | 0.70 |
Hilly | 0.52 | 0.62 | 0.72 | 0.82 |
^{1}Flat 0-5% slope; Rolling 5-10%; Hilly 10-30% | ||||
Source: Adapted from Ponce (1989) |
749.5.2.2 Urban Runoff Coefficients
For urban watersheds, the runoff coefficient is primarily a function of land use and watershed slope. The following table gives a range of "C" values for various land use types in urban areas. The value selected by the designer should reflect the watershed slope, with steeper slopes having higher "C" values.
Description | Runoff Coefficients |
---|---|
Business: | |
Downtown Areas | 0.70 - 0.95 |
Neighborhood Areas | 0.50 - 0.70 |
Residential: | |
Urban Single-Family | 0.30 - 0.50 |
Urban Apartments | 0.40 - 0.70 |
Suburban | 0.25-0.40 |
Industrial: | |
Light | 0.50 - 0.80 |
Heavy | 0.60 - 0.90 |
Railroad Yards | 0.20 - 0.40 |
Parks, Cemeteries | 0.10 - 0.25 |
Playgrounds | 0.20 - 0.40 |
Unimproved Areas | 0.10 - 0.30 |
Streets and Roofs | 0.70 - 0.90 |
Lawns: | |
Sandy Soil | 0.10 - 0.20 |
Clay Soil | 0.15 - 0.35 |
Sodded Roadway Slopes (1V:6H to 1V:1H) | 0.40 - 0.60 |
Source: Ponce (1979) |
749.5.2.3 Design Frequency
The rural and urban runoff coefficients given in the tables above are appropriate for 5-year or 10-year design frequencies. Estimation of peak flows for less frequent storms requires the use of a higher runoff coefficient because infiltration and other abstractions have proportionately less effect on the amount of rainfall that becomes runoff. To obtain runoff coefficients for other frequency events, the "C" value is multiplied by a frequency correction factor. The frequency correction factor is 1.10 for the 25-year event, 1.20 for the 50-year event, and 1.25 for the 100-year event. However, the resulting runoff coefficient (original "C" multiplied by the frequency correction factor) may not be greater than 1.0.
749.5.2.4 Composite Runoff Coefficients
The land use and soil type may vary from one portion of a watershed to another. In this case an average runoff coefficient, weighted by area, should be used. For example, consider a flat watershed with soils of average infiltration capacity (soil group B) and with 1/3 of the drainage area cultivated (C=0.40) and 2/3 of the drainage area in woodland cover (C=0.20). The weighted average runoff coefficient to be used to estimate the 10-year flood is:
The frequency correction factor may be applied to the weighted average runoff coefficient to estimate lower frequency flows: in the above example, a "C" value of (1.10)(0.267)=0.294 would be used for the 25-year flood, and a "C" of (1.20)(0.267)=0.320 would be used for the 50-year flood.
749.5.3 Time of Concentration
In order to determine the rainfall intensity used in the Rational Method, the time of concentration of the watershed must be estimated. The time of concentration of a watershed is defined as the time required for water to travel from the most hydraulically distant point of the watershed to the watershed outlet. This is also the time required before the entire watershed begins to contribute flow to the watershed outlet. This characteristic response time of the watershed is used as the duration of the design storm and thus influences the value of rainfall intensity used in the Rational Method.
Note that the location of the most hydraulically distant point in the watershed is a function of travel time and depends on both velocity and distance. The point in the watershed used to determine time of concentration may not necessarily be the point furthest from the watershed outlet.
In general, the time of concentration of urban drainage basins will be shorter than the time of concentration of rural basins. This is true when the natural drainage channels have been altered by storm sewers, main channel straightening, paving or similar modifications.
The time of concentration of a watershed will consist of the summation of travel times from one or more of the following flow regimes:
- overland flow,
- ditch or open channel flow,
- and storm sewer system flow.
Overland Flow. The overland flow regime consists of very shallow sheet flow over the watershed surface. The velocities in overland flow are typically much lower than in the other flow regimes. Overland flow will become concentrated after a short distance and transform into one of the other flow regimes.
Open Channel Flow. The open channel flow regime consists of:
- flow that has concentrated into swales or ditches, or
- an outlet discharge from a storm sewer system
- If open channel flow is a combination of the two, both contributors should be evaluated and engineering judgment used to determine the appropriate time of concentration.
Storm Sewer System Flow. Velocities are typically greater in sewer systems than in natural ditches or channels. The storm sewer system flow regime consists of:
- Overland flow entering drain inlets, or
- open channel flow entering drain inlets.
- If sewer system flow is a combination of the two, both contributors should be evaluated and engineering judgment used to determine the appropriate time of concentration.
749.5.3.1 Rural Watersheds
For rural drainage basins the Kerby-Kirpich Method described below is a recommended method of determining time of concentration. Other methods such as those provided by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) may be used as deemed necessary or appropriate by engineering judgment. See Velocity Method in Chapter 2 of FHWA publication Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 (HDS-2) for details on the NRCS method.
749.5.3.2 Urban Watersheds
For urban drainage basins the Kerby-Hathaway Equation for Overland Flow plus the appropriate Channel or Storm Sewer Travel Time as described below is a recommended method of determining time of concentration. Other methods such as those provided by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) may be used as deemed necessary or appropriate by engineering judgment. See Velocity Method in Chapter 2 of FHWA publication Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 (HDS-2) for details on the NRCS method.
749.5.3.3 Kerby-Kirpich Method
For rural drainage basins the Kerby- Hathaway and Kirpich methods can be used in conjunction to estimate the time of concentration.
- T_{c} = t_{o} + t_{c}
- where:
- T_{c} = the total time of concentration (min)
- t_{o} = the overland flow time of concentration from the Kerby-Hathaway equation (min)
- t_{c} = the channel flow time of concentration from the Kirpich equation (min)
749.5.3.3.1 Low (Flat) Slopes
In watersheds with low topographical relief, time of concentration calculations will often result in unreasonably large values. Cleveland, et al. 2012 recommends the following adjustment to the slope in the Kirpich and Kerby-Hathaway equations to provide a more realistic estimate of the time of concentration:
- For slopes flatter than 0.002 ft/ft (0.2%) the adjusted slope should be increased by 0.0005 (S_{adj} = S + 0.0005).
- For slopes between 0.002 ft/ft (0.2%) and 0.003 ft/ft (0.3%) engineering judgment should be used to determine if the adjustment to the slope should be made.
749.5.3.3.2 Kirpich Equation
Open channel flow travel time for streams with natural beds, or that mimic natural beds, can be calculated using the Kirpich Equations If flow regimes are combined the upstream end of the flow length (L) should extent to the basin divide.
- where:
- t_{c} = the time of concentration (min)
- K = 0.0078
- L = the flow length of the principal watercourse, ft.
- S = the slope between the minimum and maximum elevation, ft./ft.
749.5.3.3.3 Kerby-Hathaway Equation for Overland Flow
Overland flow travel time can be calculated using the Kerby-Hathaway equation:
- where:
- t_{o} = overland travel time (min)
- K = 0.8262
- L = the overland flow length, ft.
- n = roughness coefficient
- S = the overland flow slope, ft./ft.
The roughness coefficient, n, used in this equation is similar in meaning to that used in Manning's equation for open-channel flow; however, for a given type of surface, the roughness coefficient for overland flow will be considerably larger than for open-channel flow. Typical values for the roughness coefficient are given in the table below. The overland flow length should be limited to less than 500 ft.;it is usually much less and engineering judgment should be used for lengths of more than 200 ft. After a short distance, overland flow usually changes flow regimes and begins to concentrate in swales or ditches, or into a storm sewer system.
Type of Surface | N | |
---|---|---|
Dense Growth | 0.40 to 0.50 | |
Pasture | 0.30 to 0.40 | |
Lawns | 0.20 to 0.30 | |
Bluegrass Sod | 0.20 to 0.50 | |
Short-Grass Prairie | 0.10 to 0.20 | |
Sparse Vegetation | 0.05 to 0.13 | |
Bare Clay-Loam Soil (Eroded) | 0.01 to 0.03 | |
Concrete - Asphalt | ||
Very Shallow Depths < ¼” | 0.10 to 0.15 | |
Shallow Depths > ¼” | 0.05 to 0.10 | |
Deciduous Timberland | 0.50 to 0.70 | |
Conifer Timberland | 0.60 to 0.80 | |
Source: Ponce et al. (1989) |
749.5.3.4 Storm Sewer Travel Time
The storm sewer travel time is the summation of travel times in each component of the sewer system between the uppermost inlet and the outlet. These times may be estimated by use of the open channel flow charts presented in Open Channels. The proper procedure is to solve for the velocity of flow in each component assuming the pipe is flowing at maximum capacity. The velocity of flow is then divided into the length of flow to obtain the travel time. In order to use this method, it is necessary to obtain detailed information on the existing storm sewer system. This information includes conduit sizes, materials, lengths and slopes. If this information is not available or if the structure being designed is not considered important enough to warrant the effort required for such a detailed analysis, the storm sewer travel time may be estimated by use of the Kirpich Equation. In this case, the travel time given by the Kirpich Equation should be multiplied by 0.20 to obtain the travel time in the storm sewer system.
749.5.3.5 Channel Flow Travel Time
The travel time in the open channel flow phase can be estimated by first estimating the velocity of flow in the channel. The velocity of flow is then divided into the length of flow to obtain the travel time. For subcritical flow conditions, the velocity should be determined for bank-full conditions at the mid-point of the channel's length. If the channel is improved, the average velocity may be estimated from the flow charts or flow computations presented in Open Channels. If the channel is natural, the travel time may be estimated by open channel flow computations. Care should be taken when estimating channel flow travel time for supercritical flow conditions. In some cases, the bank-full velocity under supercritical conditions may be too high to provide a reasonable estimate of travel time and a more reasonable estimate of flow depth should be used instead.
749.5.4 Rainfall Intensity
The design rainfall intensity is a function of the storm duration, the design frequency and the geographic location. The storm duration is taken as the time of concentration of the watershed or five minutes, whichever is greater. Knowing the storm duration and the design frequency, the rainfall intensity may be read from the appropriate Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve for each district.
- Northwest District
- Northeast District
- Kansas City District
- Central District
- St. Louis District
- Southwest District
- Southeast District
749.6 USGS Regression Equations
The USGS Regression equations were developed by the United States Geological Survey. Data from stream gage sites were analyzed to determine flood magnitudes with various recurrence intervals. The resulting magnitudes were then related to basin characteristics through a statistical analysis to provide the regression equations. Three sets of equations are currently available: 2014 and 1995 Rural Regression Equations, and Urban Regression Equations.
Stream flows for ungaged sites on streams that have a stream gage(s) may be determined using the area weighted method shown in EPG 749.7, Historical USGS Stream Gage Data.
749.6.1 Rural Regression Equations
For ungaged natural flood flow sites, flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 (2014 only) and 500 years are computed by using appropriate values of the contributing drainage basin area (A) and basin shape (B) (2014) or slope (S) (1995) in the equations shown in the Rural Regression Equations tables. A computer program is available to assist in performing these calculations. The state is divided into three hydrologic regions, each with its own set of regression coefficients. The three regions are described as follows:
Region I - Central Lowlands - Characterized by meandering stream channels in wide and flat valleys with local relief generally between 50 to 150 feet. Elevations range from about 600 ft. above sea level near the Mississippi River to about 1200 ft. above sea level in the northwestern part of the state.
Region II - Ozark Plateaus - - Characterized by streams that have narrow valleys 200 to 500 ft. deep, with local relief generally ranging from 100 to 500 feet. Main channel gradients generally are steeper than elsewhere in Missouri, and karst features are locally prominent in much of the region. Elevations (generally) range from 800 to 1700 ft. above sea level. Region II also includes the geological formation known as Crowley’s Ridge which rises 250 to 550 ft. above the Mississippi Alluvial Plain and reflects hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics similar to the Ozark Plateau.
Region III - Mississippi Alluvial Plain - This is a relatively flat area and is predominately agricultural cropland. Virtually all the area is drained by a series of man-made drainage ditches with average slopes of about 1.5 ft./mile. Elevations range from 200 to 300 ft. above sea level with local relief seldom exceeding 30 feet.
749.6.1.1 2014 Rural Regression Equations
Engineering judgment should be exercised when using these equations to ensure that the subject drainage area is similar in characteristics to the USGS region being used. Portions of eastern Butler and Ripley counties are especially sensitive as some streams will be consistent with slopes for Region 2 and others with Region 3.
Valid data ranges for each of the regional equations are listed in the Valid Data Ranges table below. The Supplemental Data Ranges table may be used to help determine which regional equation to use, but should not be used to determine the validity of the equations.
Valid Data Ranges | Supplemental Data Ranges | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Drainage Area (mi^{2}) | Basin Shape | Basin Slope (ft/ft) | Valley Slope (ft/mi) | |||||
Min. | Max. | Min. | Max. | Min. | Max. | Min. | Max. | |
0.11 | 8212.38 | 2.25 | 26.59 | Region I | 0.0141 | 0.1812 | 1.53 | 198.02 |
0.17 | 4008.92 | 2.04 | 26.89 | Region II | 0.0133 | 0.1999 | 0.34 | 257.13 |
2.12 | 2177.58 | na | na | Region III | 0.0017 | 0.0388 | 0.61 | 2.07 |
Source: Southard and Veilleux (2014) |
2014 Rural Regression Equations Flood Freq.
(years)Flood Magnitude
ft^{3}/sStd. Error of Prediction
(%)Region I 2 (10^{2.594})*(A^{0.618})*(BS^{-0.282}) 38 5 (10^{2.861})*(A^{0.593})*(BS^{-0.266}) 31 10 (10^{2.990})*(A^{0.580})*(BS^{-0.258}) 29 25 (10^{3.120})*(A^{0.568})*(BS^{-0.248}) 29 50 (10^{3.199})*(A^{0.560})*(BS^{-0.242}) 29 100 (10^{3.266})*(A^{0.554})*(BS^{-0.236}) 30 200 (10^{3.324})*(A^{0.550})*(BS^{-0.231}) 31 500 (10^{3.391})*(A^{0.544})*(BS^{-0.226)} 33 Region II 2 (10^{2.493})*(A^{0.686})*(BS^{-0.222}) 44 5 (10^{2.801})*(A^{0.679})*(BS^{-0.251}) 32 10 (10^{2.955})*(A^{0.676})*(BS^{-0.268}) 28 25 (10^{3.113})*(A^{0.673})*(BS^{-0.287}) 24 50 (10^{3.205})*(A^{0.671})*(BS^{-0.296}) 24 100 (10^{3.282})*(A^{0.669})*(BS^{-0.302}) 24 200 (10^{3.349})*(A^{0.668})*(BS^{-0.307}) 25 500 (10^{3.422})*(A^{0.667})*(BS^{-0.311}) 27 Region III 2 (10^{1.933})*(A^{0.665}) 30 5 (10^{2.026})*(A^{0.681}) 26 10 (10^{2.070})*(A^{0.689}) 26 25 (10^{2.113})*(A^{0.698}) 26 50 (10^{2.139})*(A^{0.703}) 27 100 (10^{2.162})*(A^{0.708}) 27 200 (10^{2.182})*(A^{0.713}) 28 500 (10^{2.204})*(A^{0.718}) 29 Source: Southard and Veilleux (2014)
749.6.1.1.1 Drainage Area
Drainage area (A) in mi^{2}, can be obtained by determining the area contributing surface flows to the site as outlined along the drainage divide on the best available topographic maps or computer program.
749.6.1.1.2 Basin Shape
The Basin Shape (BS) is dimensionless and is a statistical method used to determine the magnitude and arrival time of a peak discharge. Basins with elongated shapes will have longer duration hydrographs and lower peak discharges than a circular basin that will have shorter duration hydrographs and higher peak discharges. The value used for the Basin Shape (BS) is calculated by dividing the square of the longest flow path or stream length by the Drainage Area (A). Stream length can be determined using the best available topographic maps or computer program.
749.6.1.1.3 Limitations of Equations
The USGS Rural Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most Missouri streams. Caution should be used when using these equations when the drainage area and basin shape are outside of the limits of the Valid Data Ranges shown in EPG 749.6.1.1 2014 Rural Regression Equations.
However, the equations are generally not applicable for:
- a) basins where manmade changes have appreciably changed the flow regimen such as:
- Regulation of discharge (i.e. dams);
- Channelization;
- Diversion;
- Urbanization
- b) the main stems of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers;
- c) basins with greater than 5% impervious area;
- d) areas near the mouth of streams draining into larger rivers where backwater effect is experienced may require special consideration, see EPG 749.11 Stream Confluences.
749.6.1.2 1995 Rural Regression Equations
Valid data ranges for each of the regional equations are listed in the Valid Data Ranges table below:
Valid Data Ranges | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|
Drainage Area (mi^{2}) | Valley Slope (ft/mi) | |||
Min. | Max. | Min. | Max. | |
Region I | 0.13 | 11,500 | 1.35 | 150 |
Region II | 0.13 | 14,000 | 1.20 | 279 |
Region III | 0.48 | 1040 | na | na |
Source: Alexander and Wilson (1995) |
Flood Freq. (years) |
Flood Magnitude ft^{3}/s |
Std. Error of Prediction (%) |
---|---|---|
Region I | ||
2 | 69.4A^{0.703}S^{0.373} | 34.00 |
5 | 123A^{0.690}S^{0.383} | 32.00 |
10 | 170A^{0.680}S^{0.378} | 34.00 |
25 | 243A^{0.668}S^{0.366} | 36.00 |
50 | 305A^{0.660}S^{0.356} | 38.00 |
100 | 376A^{0.652}S^{0.346} | 40.00 |
500 | 569A^{0.636}S^{0.321} | 45.00 |
Region II | ||
2 | 77.9A^{0.733}S^{0.265} | 43.00 |
5 | 99.6A^{0.763}S^{0.355} | 36.00 |
10 | 117A^{0.774}S^{0.395} | 34.00 |
25 | 140A^{0.784}S^{0.432} | 32.00 |
50 | 155A^{0.789}S^{0.453} | 31.00 |
100 | 170A^{0.794}S^{0.471} | 32.00 |
500 | 203A^{0.804}S^{0.503} | 34.00 |
Region III | ||
2 | 88A^{0.658} | 34.00 |
5 | 145A^{0.627} | 36.00 |
10 | 187A^{0.612} | 38.00 |
25 | 244A^{0.595} | 41.00 |
50 | 288A^{0.585} | 44.00 |
100 | 334A^{0.576} | 46.00 |
500 | 448A^{0.557} | 54.00 |
Source: Alexander and Wilson (1995) |
749.6.1.2.1 Drainage Area
Drainage area (A) in mi^{2}, can be obtained by determining the area contributing surface flows to the site as outlined along the drainage divide on the best available topographic maps or computer program.
749.6.1.2.2 Valley Slope
Valley slope (S) in ft./mile is the average slope between points 10 percent and 85 percent of the distance along the main-stream channel from the site to the basin divide. The main channel is defined above stream junctions as the one draining the largest area. The elevation difference between the 10- and 85-percent points is divided by the distance between the points to evaluate the slope.
749.6.1.2.3 Limitations of Equations
The USGS Rural Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most Missouri streams Caution should be used when using these equations when the drainage area and slope are outside of the limits of the Valid Data Ranges shown in EPG 749.6.1.2 1995 Rural Regression Equations.
However, the equations are generally not applicable for:
- a) basins where manmade changes have appreciably changed the flow regimen such as:
- Regulation of discharge (i.e. dams);
- Channelization;
- Diversion;
- Urbanization
- b) the main stems of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers;
- c) basins with greater than 5% impervious area.
- d) areas near the mouth of streams draining into larger rivers where backwater effect is experienced may require special consideration, see EPG 749.11 Stream Confluences.
749.6.2 Urban Regression Equations
The USGS Rural Regression Equations given above are not applicable to urban watersheds where manmade changes have appreciably changed the flow regimen. A set of equations were developed in 2010 by the United States Geological Survey. Data from 35 gaged sites in urban locations in and adjacent to Missouri were analyzed to determine flood magnitudes with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 years. The resulting magnitudes were then related to drainage area and urban basin characteristics to provide the regression equations. A computer program is available to assist in performing these calculations.
An urban watershed may be defined as a drainage basin in which manmade developments in the form of impervious surfaces and/or storm drainage systems have substantially altered the basin's natural response to rainfall. Urbanization of a natural watershed progresses in one of two ways. First, the addition of impervious surfaces in the form of roads, streets, parking lots and roofs will prevent infiltration of rainfall into the covered soil surface, thus increasing the total volume and peak rate of runoff from a given rainfall volume. Second, to protect the now valuable property in a developed watershed from this increased peak and volume of runoff, storm drainage systems are installed. The installation of a storm drainage system does not increase the volume of runoff, but modifies the time distribution of runoff. Thus, when storm water drainage systems are installed, the time of concentration of the watershed is decreased. Therefore, storm water drainage systems have the effect of removing a given volume of runoff in a shorter period of time, thus increasing the peak rate of runoff.
749.6.2.1 Equations
Peak discharges can be estimated at urban locations using the equations presented in the Urban Regression Equations table, below. The Equations give peak discharge as a function of drainage area (A) and percentage of impervious area (I).
All hydraulic design in urban areas should consider the effect of increasing development throughout the projected life of the structure. Information on planned future development may be available from local agencies.
The range of valid data for USGS Urban Regression Equations are:
- a) Drainage Area – 0.28 mi^{2} to 189 mi^{2}
- b) Impervious Area - 2.3% to 46%
Flood Freq. (years) |
Flood Magnitude ft^{3}/s |
Std. Error of Prediction (%) |
---|---|---|
2 | 188A^{0.599}10^{0.014(I)} | -23.1 to 30.0 |
5 | 352A^{0.592}10^{0.011(I)} | -20.6 to 25.9 |
10 | 484A^{0.594}10^{0.010(I)} | -19.6 to 24.4 |
25 | 671A^{0.599}10^{0.008(I)} | -19.6 to 24.4 |
50 | 826A^{0.604}10^{0.008(I)} | -20.6 to 25.9 |
100 | 991A^{0.608}10^{0.007(I)} | -22.3 to 28.7 |
500 | 1,420A^{0.619}10^{0.006(I)} | -28.9 to 40.7 |
Source: Southard (2010) |
749.6.2.2 Drainage Area
Drainage area (A) in mi^{2}, can be obtained by determining the area contributing surface flows to the site as outlined along the drainage divide on the best available topographic maps or computer program.
749.6.2.3 Percentage of Impervious Area
The percentage of impervious area (I) is the portion of the drainage area that is impervious because of buildings, parking lots, streets and roads, and other impervious areas within an urban basin. The variable, I, is determined from the best available maps, satellite imagery or aerial photos showing impervious surfaces. Field inspection to supplement the imagery may be useful.
749.6.2.4 Limitations of Equations
The USGS Urban Regression Equations may be used to estimate magnitude and frequency of floods on most urban Missouri streams within the limits noted in EPG 749.6.2.1 Equations provided that the floodflows are relatively unaffected by manmade works such as dams or diversions.
749.7 Historical USGS Stream Gage Data
Numerous USGS recording stream gages have been maintained for many years on selected Missouri streams. For proposed structures at or near one of these gages, the gage data can be used in estimating discharge. When sufficient years of data have been collected at a stream gage, the data may be statistically analyzed to estimate discharge for the selected design flood frequency.
Stream gage data is available on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mo/nwis/.
749.7.1 Analysis
Gage data is analyzed by Log-Pearson Type III regression analysis to determine the discharges associated with the relevant return periods. See Water Resources Council Bulletin #17B in References for details on this analysis method. A computer program for the analysis is available.
One statistical parameter computed in the Log-Pearson analysis is the skew coefficient of the distribution of the stream gage data. Skew coefficients for the data from stream gages in Missouri are typically between -0.1 and -0.4 when sufficient years of record are available. Skew coefficients outside this range may indicate an insufficient length of record or an analysis affected by outliers in the data. In this case, other methods of determining discharges will likely provide better estimates.
749.7.2 Ungaged Sites Near Stream Gage
Stream gage data from gages at some distance from the site on the same watershed and stream gage data from nearby hydrologically similar watersheds may also be used to estimate discharges. Discharges obtained from this type of data should be compared with discharges obtained by other methods and not given the same weight as discharges obtained from data from a stream gage at the proposed site. Better estimates of discharge using this method may be obtained by repeating the procedure for several nearby gages and averaging the results. This method should not be used when drainage areas differ by more than 50% or at sites more than 50 miles from the stream gage(s).
Transposition of discharges from one basin to another, or from one location to another within the same watershed, is accomplished using the following Area-Weighting equation:
- where:
- Q1 = discharge for ungaged drainage basin (cfs)
- A1 = drainage area for ungaged drainage basin (mi^{2})
- Q2 = discharge for gaged drainage basin (cfs)
- A2 = drainage area for gaged drainage basin (mi^{2})
- k = exponent = see table
Flood Freq. (years) |
Region I | Region II | Region III |
---|---|---|---|
2 | 0.580 | 0.654 | 0.665 |
5 | 0.557 | 0.643 | 0.681 |
10 | 0.546 | 0.637 | 0.689 |
25 | 0.536 | 0.632 | 0.698 |
50 | 0.529 | 0.629 | 0.703 |
100 | 0.524 | 0.626 | 0.708 |
200 | 0.520 | 0.625 | 0.713 |
500 | 0.515 | 0.623 | 0.718 |
Source: Southard and Veilleux (2014) |
749.8 NFIP Flood Insurance Study Discharges
NFIP Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) typically include estimates of 10-, 50-, 100- and 500-year discharges for streams studied by detailed methods. These discharges may be more accurate than those obtained by other methods if the FIS discharges were determined through a detailed hydrologic study, such as an HEC-1, HEC-HMS or TR-20 hydrologic model. In some instances, the FIS discharges may have been determined using an older version of the USGS regression equations. Engineering judgment should be exercised to determine if the FIS discharges determined from older USGS regression equations should be used for the hydraulic design. When a No-Rise Certificate is required, and the FIS discharges are not used for hydraulic design, the 100-year FIS discharge should be used to verify the no-rise condition based on the Base Flood elevations in the FIS. Careful review of the FIS report will disclose the level of detail used in the hydrologic study.
749.9 Flood Hydrographs
For certain design problems it may be necessary to determine flood hydrographs associated with the peak discharge for a desired frequency. A hydrograph gives flow rate as a function of time at a particular location in a watershed, usually at the watershed outlet.
749.9.1 NRCS Unit Hydrograph
Techniques developed by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), for calculating rates of runoff require the same basic data as the Rational Method: drainage area, a runoff factor, time of concentration, and rainfall information. The NRCS method is more sophisticated in that it considers also the time distribution of rainfall, the initial rainfall losses to interception and depression storage, and an infiltration rate that decreases during the course of a storm. The NRCS Unit Hydrograph method is applicable for all watersheds between 6.4 and 16,000 acres. Additional details on the NRCS methodology can be found in the National Engineering Handbook, (NEH), Part 630, Chapter 10 and Chapter 16(USDA/NRCS).
749.9.1.1 Rainfall-Runoff Equation and Concepts
The NRCS method is based on a 24-hour storm event. NRCS has developed four synthetic rainfall distributions typical of storms for various geographical regions in the United States. The Type II distribution is the appropriate distribution for using the NRCS method in Missouri.
The NRCS rainfall-runoff equation was developed by the NRCS from experimental plots for numerous soil types and vegetative cover conditions. The experimental data consisted mainly of daily rainfall totals on small watersheds, and did not include information on the time distribution of rainfall. The NRCS rainfall-runoff equation is therefore used to estimate the depth of runoff resulting from a given depth of 24-hour rainfall assumed to be spatially distributed uniformly over the watershed. The equation is given by:
- where:
- Q = accumulated direct runoff, in
- P = accumulated rainfall (potential maximum runoff), in
- I_{a} = initial abstractions including surface storage, interception and infiltration prior to runoff, in
- S = potential maximum retention, in
The potential maximum retention, S, is a measure of the maximum amount of water a given watershed could retain, and is a function of land use, interception capacity, infiltration capacity, depression storage, and antecedent moisture. A relationship between Ia and S was also developed from experimental data:
Substituting the equation for I_{a} into the equation above, the NRCS rainfall-runoff equation becomes:
It is important to note that while both P and Q are given in units of depth, they actually represent volumes of rainfall and runoff, respectively. This is because the indicated depth of rainfall or runoff is assumed to be applied uniformly to the entire watershed area.
The NRCS made additional empirical analyses to estimate the value of S for various watersheds. The principal physical characteristics affecting the relationship between rainfall and runoff are land use, land treatment, soil types and land slope. These characteristics which affect the maximum potential retention are represented by a runoff factor called the curve number (CN), which is related to S by:
The curve number is an index that represents the combination of hydrologic soil group, land use, hydrologic condition, and antecedent moisture condition. The table(s) below, Runoff Curve Numbers, provide curve numbers for different land uses, treatments and hydrologic conditions; separate values are given for each soil group. The NRCS provides methods of adjusting the curve numbers based on varying antecedent moisture conditions; however, for design purposes, average antecedent moisture conditions are normally assumed and the values given in the table can therefore be used for design.
Cover Description | Curve Numbers for Hydrologic Soil Groups | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cover Type and Hydrologic Condition | Average Percent Impervious Area^{2} | A | B | C | D |
Fully Developed Urban Areas (Vegetation Established) | |||||
Open Space (lawns, parks, golf courses, cemeteries, etc.)^{3} | |||||
Poor Condition (grass cover<50%) | 68 | 79 | 86 | 89 | |
Fair Condition (grass cover 50% to 75%) | 49 | 69 | 79 | 84 | |
Good Condition (grass cover>75%) | 39 | 61 | 74 | 80 | |
Impervious Areas: | |||||
Paved Parking Lots, Roofs, Driveways, etc. (excluding right-of-way) | 98 | 98 | 98 | 98 | |
Streets and Roads: | |||||
Paved; Curbs and Storm Drains (excluding right-of-way) | 98 | 98 | 98 | 98 | |
Paved; Open Ditches (including right-of-way) | 83 | 89 | 92 | 93 | |
Gravel (including right-of-way) | 76 | 85 | 89 | 91 | |
Dirt (including right-of-way) | 72 | 82 | 87 | 89 | |
Western Desert Urban Areas: | |||||
Natural Desert Landscaping (pervious areas only) | 63 | 77 | 85 | 88 | |
Artificial Desert Landscaping (impervious weed | |||||
barrier desert shrub with 25- to 50 mm sand | |||||
or gravel mulch and basin borders) | 96 | 96 | 96 | 96 | |
Urban Districts: | |||||
Commercial and Business | 85 | 89 | 92 | 94 | 95 |
Industrial | 72 | 81 | 88 | 91 | 93 |
Residential Districts by Average Lot Size: | |||||
1/8 Acre or Less (town houses) | 65 | 77 | 85 | 90 | 92 |
1/4 Acre | 38 | 61 | 75 | 83 | 87 |
1/3 Acre | 30 | 57 | 72 | 81 | 86 |
1/2 Acre | 25 | 54 | 70 | 80 | 85 |
1 Acre | 20 | 51 | 68 | 79 | 84 |
2 Acres | 12 | 46 | 65 | 77 | 82 |
Developing Urban Areas | |||||
Newly Graded Areas (pervious areas only, no vegetation | 77 | 86 | 91 | 94 | |
Idle Lands (CNs are determined using cover types similar to those in Runoff Curve Numbers - Urban Areas | |||||
^{1}Average runoff condition, and I_{a}=0.2S | |||||
^{2}The average percent impervious area shown was used to develp the composite CNs. Other assumptions are as follows: impervious areas are directly connected to the drainage system, impervious areas have a CN of 98, and pervious areas are considered equivalent to open space in good hydrologic condition. If the impervious area is not connected, the NRCS method has an adjustment to reduce the effect. | |||||
^{3}CNs shown are equivalent to those of pasture. Composite CNs may be computed for other combinations of open space cover type. |
Cover Description | Curve Numbers for Hydrologic Soil Groups | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cover Type | Treatment^{2} | Hydrologic Condition^{3} | A | B | C | D |
Fallow | Bare Soil | 77 | 86 | 91 | 94 | |
Crop Residue Cover (CR) | Poor | 76 | 85 | 90 | 93 | |
Good | 74 | 83 | 88 | 90 | ||
Row Crops | Straight Row (SR) | Poor | 72 | 81 | 88 | 91 |
Good | 67 | 78 | 85 | 89 | ||
SR + CR | Poor | 71 | 80 | 87 | 90 | |
Good | 64 | 75 | 82 | 85 | ||
Contoured (C) | Poor | 70 | 79 | 84 | 88 | |
Good | 65 | 75 | 82 | 86 | ||
C + CR | Poor | 69 | 78 | 83 | 87 | |
Good | 64 | 74 | 81 | 85 | ||
Contoured & Terraced (C&T) | Poor | 66 | 74 | 80 | 82 | |
Good | 62 | 71 | 78 | 81 | ||
C&T + CR | Poor | 65 | 73 | 79 | 81 | |
Good | 61 | 70 | 77 | 80 | ||
Small Grain | SR | Poor | 65 | 76 | 84 | 88 |
Good | 63 | 75 | 83 | 87 | ||
SR + CR | Poor | 64 | 75 | 83 | 86 | |
Good | 60 | 72 | 80 | 84 | ||
C | Poor | 63 | 74 | 82 | 85 | |
Good | 61 | 73 | 81 | 85 | ||
C + CR | Poor | 62 | 73 | 81 | 84 | |
Good | 60 | 72 | 80 | 83 | ||
C&T | Poor | 61 | 72 | 79 | 82 | |
Good | 59 | 70 | 78 | 81 | ||
C&T + CR | Poor | 60 | 71 | 78 | 81 | |
Good | 58 | 69 | 77 | 80 | ||
Close-Seeded or Broadcast Legumes or Rotation Meadow | SR | Poor | 66 | 77 | 85 | 89 |
Good | 58 | 72 | 81 | 85 | ||
C | Poor | 64 | 75 | 83 | 85 | |
Good | 55 | 69 | 78 | 83 | ||
C&T | Poor | 63 | 73 | 80 | 83 | |
Good | 51 | 67 | 76 | 80 | ||
^{1}Average runoff condition, and I_{a}=0.2S | ||||||
^{2}Crop residue cover applies only if residue is on at least 5% of the surface throughout the year. | ||||||
^{3}Hydrologic condition is based on a combination of factors that affect infiltration and runoff, including (a) density and canopy of vegetative areas, (b) amount of year-round cover, (c) amount of grass or closed-seeded legumes in rotations, (d) percent of residue cover on the land surface (good>20%) and (e) degree of roughness.
Poor: Factors impair infiltration and tend to increase runoff. Good: Factors encourage average and better than average infiltration and tend to decrease runoff. |
Cover Description | Curve Numbers for Hydrologic Soil Groups | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Cover Type | Hydrologic Condition^{3} | A | B | C | D |
Pasture, Grassland, or Range — Continuous Forage for Grazing | Poor | 68 | 79 | 86 | 89 |
Fair | 49 | 69 | 79 | 84 | |
Good | 39 | 61 | 74 | 80 | |
Meadow - Continuous Grass, Protected from Grazing and Generally Mowed for Hay | 30 | 58 | 71 | 78 | |
Brush - Brush-Weed-Grass Mixture with Brush the Major Element | Poor | 48 | 67 | 77 | 83 |
Fair | 35 | 56 | 70 | 77 | |
Good | ^{4}30 | 48 | 65 | 73 | |
Woods - Grass Combination (Orchard or Tree Farm)^{5} | Poor | 57 | 73 | 82 | 86 |
Fair | 43 | 65 | 76 | 82 | |
Good | 32 | 58 | 72 | 79 | |
Woods^{6} | Good | 45 | 66 | 77 | 83 |
Fair | 36 | 60 | 73 | 79 | |
Good | ^{4}30 | 55 | 70 | 77 | |
Farmsteads - Buildings, Lanes, Driveways and Surrounding Lots | 59 | 74 | 82 | 86 | |
^{1}Average runoff condition, and I_{a}=0.2S | |||||
^{2}Poor: <50% ground cover or heavily grazed with no mulch
Fair: 50 to 74% ground cover Good: >75% ground cover and lightly or only occasionally grazed | |||||
^{3}Poor: <50% gound cover
Fair: 50 to 75% ground cover Good: >75% ground cover | |||||
^{4}Actual curve number is less than 30; use CN=30 for runoff computations. | |||||
^{5}CNs shown were computed for areas with 50% grass (pasture) cover. Other combinations of conditions may be computed from CNs for woods and pasture. | |||||
^{6}Poor: Forest litter, small trees and brush are destroyed by heavy grazing or regular burning.
Fair: Woods grazed but not burned, and some forest litter covers the soil. Good: Woods protected from grazing, litter and brush adequately cover soil. |
749.9.1.2 NRCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph
The NRCS unit hydrograph was developed based on analysis of a large number of natural unit hydrographs from a wide range of drainage basin sizes and geographic locations. The NRCS unit hydrograph is given in a dimensionless form and provides a standard unit hydrograph shape.
Time Ratio | Discharge Ratio | Time Ratio | Discharge Ratio | Time Ratio | Discharge Ratio | Time Ratio | Discharge Ratio |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
t/T_{p} | q/q_{p} | t/T_{p} | q/q_{p} | t/T_{p} | q/q_{p} | t/T_{p} | q/q_{p} |
0.0 | 0.000 | 0.9 | 0.990 | 1.8 | 0.390 | 3.4 | 0.029 |
0.1 | 0.030 | 1.0 | 1.000 | 1.9 | 0.330 | 3.6 | 0.021 |
0.2 | 0.100 | 1.1 | 0.990 | 2.0 | 0.280 | 3.8 | 0.021 |
0.3 | 0.190 | 1.2 | 0.930 | 2.2 | 0.207 | 4.0 | 0.011 |
0.4 | 0.310 | 1.3 | 0.860 | 2.4 | 0.147 | 4.5 | 0.005 |
0.5 | 0.470 | 1.4 | 0.780 | 2.6 | 0.107 | 5.0 | 0.000 |
0.6 | 0.660 | 1.5 | 0.680 | 2.8 | 0.077 | ||
0.7 | 0.820 | 1.6 | 0.560 | 3.0 | 0.055 | ||
0.8 | 0.930 | 1.7 | 0.460 | 3.2 | 0.040 | ||
Source: McCuen (1996) |
Use of the NRCS unit hydrograph requires calculation of the unit hydrograph peak discharge and the time to peak. The unit hydrograph peak discharge is given by:
- where:
- q_{p} = unit hydrograph peak discharge, cfs
- A = drainage area, mi^{2}
- Q = runoff in inches
- T_{p} = time to peak, hrs
The time to peak is assumed to be equal to the basin lag time plus one-half the duration of rainfall. Basin lag time is estimated as 0.6 times the time of concentration, leading to the following equation for time to peak:
- where:
- t_{p} = time to peak, hrs
- ΔD = duration of rainfall (unit hydrograph duration) = 0.133 t_{c}, hrs
- t_{c} = time of concentration, hrs
749.9.1.3 Application of NRCS Methodology
Unit hydrograph theory depends on the principles of linearity and superposition. Given a unit hydrograph, the runoff hydrograph for a runoff depth other than unity can be obtained by multiplying the unit hydrograph ordinates by the runoff depth using the principle of linearity. The flood hydrograph for a particular storm event can be obtained by dividing the storm event into incremental periods of runoff, then applying the unit hydrograph to each incremental runoff and summing the resulting hydrographs together using the principle of superposition to obtain the total runoff hydrograph.
The unit hydrograph duration (and the corresponding duration of the period of incremental runoff used in applying the unit hydrograph method) is estimated as 0.133t_{c}. Since the NRCS Type II rainfall distribution has a 24-hour time base, application of the NRCS unit hydrograph methodology to typical watersheds by hand requires calculation of runoff hydrographs for a large number of increments. This can be cumbersome and time-consuming and a computer-based implementation is recommended.
749.10 Detention Storage
The traditional purpose of storm drainage systems has been to collect and convey storm runoff as rapidly as possible to a suitable location where it can be discharged. As areas urbanize this type of design may result in major drainage and flooding problems downstream. Under favorable conditions, the temporary storage of some of the storm runoff can decrease downstream flows and often the cost of the downstream conveyance system. Detention storage facilities can range from small facilities contained in parking lots or other on-site facilities to large lakes and reservoirs. This article provides general procedures for detention storage analysis.
An easement must be purchased for any land, outside of the right of way, that will be flooded by water from a detention storage structure.
749.10.1 Data Needs
The following data will be needed to complete storage calculations.
- Inflow hydrograph for all selected design storms. The inflow hydrograph for the detention basin can be determined using the methods in Flood Hydrographs.
- Stage-storage curve for storage facility.
- Stage-discharge curve for the facility.
Using these data, the inflow hydrograph is routed through the storage facility to develop the outflow hydrograph.
749.10.1.1 Stage-Storage Curve
A stage-storage curve defines the relationship between the depth of water and storage volume in a reservoir. The data for this type of curve are usually developed using a topographic map and the conic formula for irregular shaped basins, or the prismoidal formula for trapezoidal basins. The conic formula is expressed as:
- (Equation 1)
- where:
- V_{1,2} = storage volume, ft^{3} (m^{3}), between elevations 1 and 2
- A_{1} = surface area at elevation 1, ft^{2}
- A^{2} = surface area at elevation 2, ft^{2}
- d = change in elevation between points 1 and 2, ft
The prismoidal formula for trapezoidal basins is expressed as:
- (Equation 2)
- where:
- V = volume of trapezoidal basin, ft^{3}
- L = length of basin at base, ft
- W = width of basin at base, ft
- D = depth of basin, ft
- Z = side slope factor, ratio of horizontal to vertical
749.10.1.2 Stage-Discharge Curve
A stage-discharge curve defines the relationship between the depth of water and the discharge or outflow from a storage facility. If the detention facility has both principal and emergency spillways the stage-discharge curve should take both into account. The following equations can be used to help develop the stage-discharge curve.
Sharp-crested weir flow equations for no end contractions, two end contractions, and submerged discharge conditions are presented below, followed by equations for broad-crested weirs, v-notch weirs and orifices, or combinations of these facilities.
Sharp-Crested Weirs. A sharp-crested weir with no end contractions is illustrated in Weir Configurations. The discharge equation for this configuration is (Chow, 1959):
- English: (Equation 3)
- Metric: (Equation 4)
- where:
- Q = discharge, ft^{3}/s
- H = head above weir crest excluding velocity head, ft.
- H_{c} = height of weir crest above channel bottom, ft.
- L = horizontal weir length, ft.
A sharp-crested weir with two end contractions is illustrated in Weir Configurations. The discharge equation for this configuration is (Chow, 1959):
- English: (Equation 5)
- where: Variables are the same as for the previous equation.
A sharp-crested weir will be affected by submergence when the tailwater rises above the weir crest elevation. The result will be that the discharge over the weir will be reduced. The discharge equation for a sharp-crested submerged weir is (Brater and King, 1976):
- (Equation 6)
- where:
- Q_{s} = submergence flow, ftA^{3}/s
- Q_{f} = free flow, ft^{3}/s
- H_{1} = upstream head above crest, ft.
- H_{2} = downstream head above crest, ft.
Broad-Crested Weirs The equation generally used for the broad-crested weir is (Brater and King, 1976):
- English: (Equation 7)
- where: Q = discharge, ft^{3}/s
- C = broad-crested weir coefficient (see Broad-Crested Weir Coefficients)
- L = broad-crested weir length, ft
- H = head above weir crest, ft., measured at least 2.5H upstream of the weir
For weir flow over embankments with sloped sides, a C value of 3.0 should be used. For weir flow over embankments with vertical sides, a minimum C value of 2.6 should be used.
V-Notch Weirs A V-Notch weir is illustrated in Weir Configurations. The discharge through a v-notch weir can be calculated from the following equation (Brater and King, 1976):
- English: (Equation 8)
- where:
- Q = discharge, ft^{3}/s
- q = angle of v-notch, degrees
- H = head on apex of notch, ft.
Orifices Pipes smaller than 12 in. may be analyzed as a submerged orifice if H/D is greater than 1.5. For square-edged entrance conditions,
- English: (Equation 9)
- where:
- Q = discharge, ft^{3}/s
- A = cross-section area of pipe, ft^{2}/s
- g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s^{2}
- D = diameter of pipe, ft.
- H = head on pipe, from the center of pipe to the water surface, ft.
Culverts If culverts are used as outlets works, procedures presented in the Culverts should be used to develop stage-discharge data.
749.10.2 Routing Calculations
The following procedure is used to perform routing through a reservoir or storage facility (Storage Indication or Puhls Method of storage routing).
Routing a flood through a reservoir results in an attenuation of the peak of the inflow hydrograph and an associated change in timing of the peak. Storage of flood waters within the reservoir causes the peak outflow from the reservoir to be lower than the peak inflow, and causes the peak outflow to occur at a later time than the peak inflow. The continuity equation relates the change of storage within the detention storage basin to the inflow and outflow for the basin:
(Equation 10)
- where:
- I = inflow, ft^{3}/s
- O = outflow, ft^{3}/s
- DS = change in storage, ft^{3}
- DT = change in time, seconds
The Storage Indication method of reservoir routing uses a simple finite-difference form of the continuity equation. For any two points in time, the continuity equation can be written as:
- (Equation 11)
- where:
- S = storage
If the values at time step n are known, the only unknowns in equation 8 are on the left-hand side.
Substituting
- (Equation 12)
- (Equation 13)
U is known as the Storage Indication Number. With these substitutions, equation 8 becomes:
- (Equation 14)
For the first time step, W_{n} is calculated using the initial values of S and O, and equation 13. For subsequent time steps the following equation can be used as a shortcut.
- (Equation 15)
The procedure for using the storage-indication method of reservoir routing is as follows:
- 1) Develop an inflow hydrograph, stage-discharge curve, and stage-storage curve for the proposed storage facility.
- 2) Select a routing time period, t, to provide at least five points on the rising limb of the inflow hydrograph.
- 3) Use the stage-storage and stage-outflow data from Step 1 to develop a plot of U versus outflow.
- 4) Calculate W_{1} using equation 22 and the initial values of S and O
- 5) Calculate U_{n+1} using equation 23.
- 6) Using U_{n+1} calculated in step 5 pick O_{n+1} from the plot of U vs. outflow.
- 7) Using U_{n+1} and O_{n+1} calculate W_{n+1} using equation 24
- 8) Start over at step 5 with n = n+1. Continue repeating until inflow ceases or the outflow peak discharge has been determined.
- 9) From the stage discharge curve, determine the stage for the peak outflow.
749.11 Stream Confluences
Water surface elevations at stream crossings near the confluence with another stream are often affected by backwater from the other stream. Several methods may be used to determine the water surface elevations at such crossings, such as:
- Coincident Peaks (i.e., 100-yr event on both streams)
- Exclusive Peaks (i.e., 100-yr event on one stream, no flow from other stream)
- Flow Combinations (i.e., 86-yr Event on Main Reach, 62-yr Event on Tributary)
749.11.1 Coincident Peaks
When both streams reach their peak flow, for a given return period, at the confluence of the streams at or near the same time the peak flows can be considered to happen at the same time. The water surface elevation of each stream is effected by the other. This method may provide overly conservative water surface elevations if applied to confluent streams that do not have similar peak times.
FEMA, Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard Mapping Partners, Appendix C: Guidelines for Riverine Flood Analysis and Mapping gives the following guidance on when coincident peaks are appropriate to use:
749.11.2 Exclusive Peaks
Hydraulic analysis is conducted individually for each stream, for a given return period, without inclusion of any flow from the other stream, as each stream is assumed to reach its peak flow at different times. Analysis of the crossed stream will yield water surface elevations for the headwater flow of the crossed stream. If a structure is included in this model the effects of the structure on the water surface elevations will be included in the model. Analysis of the confluent stream will yield water surface elevations for the headwater flow of the confluent stream which can be used to determine the backwater surface elevation on the crossed stream. This backwater surface elevation does not include any effects from the flow of the crossed stream or any structures on the crossed stream. Since there would likely be some flow from the crossed stream this method may provide un-conservative water surface elevations in some cases.
This method is commonly used in hydraulic modeling for FEMA Flood Insurance Studies.
749.11.3 Flow Combinations
Similar to Coincident Peaks this method accounts for effects of one streams water surface elevation on the other, but uses flows from different return periods for each stream. Using a combination of flows can more closely simulate actual flooding conditions; the difficulty is in selecting a flow combination that will mimic those conditions. A comparison of hydrographs of both watersheds to determine the maximum peak flow at a given return period, or the probability based procedure shown below may be used to estimate flow combinations.
For streams that are within the influence reach of the confluent streams backwater the procedure provided in NCHRP 199, Estimating Joint Probabilities of Design Coincident Flows at Stream Confluences, produces a probability based estimate for combinations of return periods for confluent streams that will produce the maximum water surface elevation and/or velocity for a design flood event. An excerpt below from NCHRP 199 provides information on which cases this procedure is applicable to (Note: For Case A this procedure may still be useful to determine flow downstream of the junction based on flow combinations).
749.12 References
AASHTO, 2014 AASHTO Drainage Manual, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
Southard, R.E. and Veilleux, A.G.2014, Methods of Estimating Annual Exceedance-Probability Discharges and largest Recorded Floods for Unregulated Streams in Rural Missouri, USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5165.0000
Alexander T.W. and Wilson, G.L., 1995, Technique for Estimating the 2- to 500-Year Flood Discharges on Unregulated Streams in Rural Missouri, USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4231
Southard, R.E., 2010, Estimation of the Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Urban Basins in Missouri, USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5073.
McCuen, R.H., et al., 2002 Highway Hydrology – Hydraulic Design Series No. 2 (HDS-2), Federal Highway Administration, Publication No. FHWA-NHI-02-001
Ponce, V.M., 1989, Engineering Hydrology, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
United States Department of Agriculture: National Resource Conservation Service, National Engineering Handbook. NEH part 630 – Hydrology & Hydraulics
US Army Corps of Engineers, 2000, Hydrologic Modeling System HEC-HMS Technical Reference Manual, Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, CA
Kilgore, R.T., et. al., 2013, Estimating Joint Probabilities of Design Coincident Flows at Stream Confluences, NCHRP 199.
Roussel, M. C., et al, 2005. Time-Parameter Estimation for Applicable Texas Watersheds, U.S. Geological Survey, Texas Water Science Center, Research Report No. 0-4696-2
Cleveland, T. G., et al, 2012, Guidance for Estimation of Time of Concentration in Texas for Low-Slope Conditions, Texas Tech University, Lubbock Texas, Report No. 0-6382-P1