902.14 In-Roadway Lights (MUTCD Chapter 4N)
902.14.1 Application of In-Roadway Lights (MUTCD Section 4N.01)
Support. In-Roadway Lights are special types of highway traffic signals installed in the roadway surface to warn road users that they are approaching a condition on or adjacent to the roadway that might not be readily apparent and might require the road users to slow down and/or come to a stop. This includes situations warning of marked school crosswalks, marked midblock crosswalks, marked crosswalks on uncontrolled approaches, marked crosswalks in advance of roundabouts as described in EPG 620 Pavement Marking, and other roadway situations involving pedestrian crossings.
Standard. In-Roadway Lights shall not be used for any application that is not described in this article.
If used, In-Roadway Lights shall not exceed a height of 3/4 in. above the roadway surface.
When used, In-Roadway Lights shall be flashed and shall not be steadily illuminated.
Support. Steadily illuminated lights installed in the roadway surface are considered to be internally illuminated raised pavement markers (see EPG 620.2.11).
Option. In-Roadway Lights may be flashed in a manner that includes a continuous flash of varying intensity and time duration that is repeated to provide a flickering effect (see EPG 902.14.2).
902.14.2 In-Roadway Warning Lights at Crosswalks (MUTCD Section 4N.02)
Option. In-roadway lights may be installed at certain marked crosswalks, based on an engineering study or engineering judgment, to provide additional warning to road users.
Standard. If used, In-Roadway Warning Lights at crosswalks shall be installed only at marked crosswalks with applicable warning signs. They shall not be used at crosswalks controlled by YIELD signs, STOP signs or traffic control signals.
If In-Roadway Warning Lights are used at a crosswalk, the following requirements shall apply:
- A. Except as provided in the Option below, they shall be installed along both sides of the crosswalk and shall span its entire length.
- B. They shall initiate operation based on pedestrian actuation and shall cease operation at a predetermined time after the pedestrian actuation or, with passive detection, after the pedestrian clears the crosswalk.
- C. They shall display a flashing yellow light when actuated. The flash rate shall be at least 50, but no more than 60, flash periods per minute. If they are flashed in a manner that includes a continuous flash of varying intensity and time duration that is repeated to provide a flickering effect, the flickers or pulses shall not repeat at a rate that is between 5 and 30 per second to avoid frequencies that might cause seizures.
- D. They shall be installed in the area between the outside edge of the crosswalk line and 10 ft. from the outside edge of the crosswalk.
- E. They shall face away from the crosswalk if unidirectional, or shall face away from and across the crosswalk if bidirectional.
If used on one-lane, one-way roadways, a minimum of two In-Roadway Warning Lights shall be installed on the approach side of the crosswalk. If used on two-lane roadways, a minimum of three In-Roadway Warning Lights shall be installed along both sides of the crosswalk. If used on roadways with more than two lanes, a minimum of one In-Roadway Warning Light per lane shall be installed along both sides of the crosswalk.
Guidance. If used, In-Roadway Warning Lights should be installed in the center of each travel lane, at the center line of the roadway, at each edge of the roadway or parking lanes, or at other suitable locations away from the normal tire track paths.
The location of the In-Roadway Warning Lights within the lanes should be based on engineering judgment.
Option. On one-way streets, In-Roadway Warning Lights may be omitted on the departure side of the crosswalk.
Based on engineering judgment, the In-Roadway Warning Lights on the departure side of the crosswalk on the left side of a median may be omitted.
Unidirectional In-Roadway Warning Lights installed at crosswalk locations may have an optional, additional yellow light indication in each unit that is visible to pedestrians in the crosswalk to indicate to pedestrians in the crosswalk that the In-Roadway Warning Lights are in fact flashing as they cross the street. These yellow lights may flash with and at the same flash rate as the light module in which each is installed.
Guidance. If used, the period of operation of the In-Roadway Warning Lights following each actuation should be sufficient to allow a pedestrian crossing in the crosswalk to leave the curb or shoulder and travel at a walking speed of 3.5 ft. per second to at least the far side of the traveled way or to a median of sufficient width for pedestrians to wait. Where pedestrians who walk slower than 3.5 ft. per second, or pedestrians who use wheelchairs, routinely use the crosswalk, a walking speed of less than 3.5 ft. per second should be considered in determining the period of operation. See EPG 902.6.6 Pedestrian Intervals and Signal Phases for additional information.
Standard. If pedestrian pushbuttons are used to actuate the in-roadway lights, a PUSH BUTTON TO TURN ON WARNING LIGHTS (with pushbutton symbol) (R10-25) sign (see MUTCD Figure 2B-26) shall be mounted adjacent to or integral with each pedestrian pushbutton.
Where the period of operation is sufficient only for crossing from a curb or shoulder to a median of sufficient width for pedestrians to wait, median-mounted pedestrian actuators shall be provided.